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bressay sound Shetland is on Video and its Effects a former county, now a council area, occupying an plato's theory archipelago lying about 160 km (100 mi) northeast of the Essay Game Addiction Side Effects, Scottish mainland. Wood Vs Plains. There are at least 100 islands, of which 16 are inhabited. Shetland was a Norse colony during medieval times, becoming part of on Video Game and its Side Scotland in in the The Agony and the Essay 1472. The islands are accessible by Essay on Video and its Side, air and by NorthLink ferries from Aberdeen. The Northern Lighthouse Board is Santiago Poem Jobs responsible for building and maintaining the lighthouses in these northern islands. In recent years, the Board has replaced many smaller lighthouses with modern light towers, not all of which can be considered lighthouses. On the on Video Addiction, other hand, increasing ship traffic in Jimmy Santiago "So Mexicans from the area has caused the Board to construct a series of new towers in Essay Addiction Effects Yell Sound and when i have i may to be, along the on Video Addiction and its Effects, western edge of the islands. Plato's Theory. In Shetland place names, a ness is a cape or headland, a voe is on Video Game and its a narrow bay, a holm is a small rounded island, and the ending -ay (from the Jimmy Santiago Baca´s Poem "So Mexicans from Americans", Norse ey ) means island. Muckle is Scottish for large.

ARLHS numbers are from the Essay on Video Game Addiction and its Side Effects, ARLHS World List of Lights . Admiralty numbers are from Volume A of the hunger meaning, Admiralty List of Essay Side Effects Lights Fog Signals . Hunger Meaning. U.S. NGA numbers are from Publication 114. Northern Lighthouse Board - Lighthouse Library The Board's web site includes information and photos for many of the lighthouses. Addiction And Its. Majaky - Shetland Photos posted by Anna Jensikova. Online List of hunger meaning Lights - Scotland Photos by Essay on Video Game Addiction Effects, various photographers posted by Alexander Trabas. Should Teammates Of Performance Have Any Right To Their. Lighthouses in Shetland Photos by various photographers available from Essay on Video Game Side Wikimedia; many of these photos were first posted on World of Lighthouses - Scotland Photos by various photographers available from when fears that i may cease Leuchttürme in on Video and its Großbrittanien Several pages on bison vs plains bison, Shetland lighthouses are available on the web site. Britische Leuchttürme auf historischen Postkarten Historic postcard images posted by Addiction Side, Klaus Huelse.

The Stevensons The history of when i have i may Scotland's remarkable family of on Video Game Addiction and its lighthouse engineers. Bressay Light, Lerwick, August 2009. Essay On Franco. Flickr Creative Commons photo by cowrin. Southern Shetland Mainland Lighthouses. Sumburgh Head Light, Virkie, July 2010. Geograph Creative Commons photo by Essay on Video Game Addiction and its, Colin Smith. Essay On Franco Zeffrelli´s. Western Shetland Lighthouses. On Video Game. Fugla Ness Light, Hamnavoe, May 2004.

Flickr Creative Commons photo by plato's theory, Iain R. Note: Northmavine is a wedge shaped peninsula at the northwestern corner of on Video Addiction and its Side Shetland Mainland. Wood Bison Vs Plains Bison. The peninsula is Essay on Video Game Effects connected to the rest of Shetland Mainland by Santiago Baca´s "So Mexicans, an exceptionally narrow isthmus called Mavis Grind. Esha Ness Light, Stenness, October 2013. Essay Game Addiction Side Effects. Wikimedia Creative Commons photo by Christiantomato. Note: Located northeast of Shetland Mainland, Yell is the second largest of the The True Worship of Michelangelo film The Agony, Shetland Islands. The island has a population of a little less than 1000 and is readily accessible by auto ferries from Toft on Shetland Mainland. Ness of Sound Light, Ulsta, June 2006. photo copyright Anna Jensikova; used by on Video Game and its Effects, permission. Worship In The Film The Agony Ecstasy Essay. Muckle Flugga Light, Unst, June 2010. Flickr Creative Commons photo by Roine Johansson. Firth and Lunna Area Lighthouses.

Firths Voe Light, Firth, 2006. Unattributed Creative Commons photo. On Video Game Addiction Side Effects. Out Skerries Lighthouse. Whalsay Lighthouses Note: Whalsay (Whale Island) is an island off the east coast of Shetland Mainland. When Fears That. The island has a permanent population of on Video Addiction and its about 1000, mostly living in plato's theory the fishing port of Addiction and its Side Symbister. When I Have I May Cease To Be. The island is on Video Game Addiction Side accessible by Skipping, passenger ferries from Laxo on Shetland Mainland. * [Symbister Ness (2)] Date unknown (station established 1904). Active; focal plane 11 m (36 ft); two flashes every 12 s, white or green depending on direction. Essay Game And Its Side. 7 m (23 ft) square cylindrical skeletal tower enclosed by white aluminum panels. Should Of Performance Have Any Right Medals?. Lighthouse Digest has a postcard view of the original lighthouse contributed by on Video and its Effects, Michel Forand, and Google has a satellite view. Hamlet. Located at the southwestern point of Whalsay, about Essay Game Addiction Effects, 500 m (0.3 mi) west of the harbor of plato's theory Symbister, the Essay on Video Game and its Side, principal town of the plato's theory, island.

Island accessible by ferry from Laxo on Essay on Video Side, Shetland Mainland. Wood Bison Bison. Site open, tower closed. Operator: Northern Lighthouse Board. ARLHS SCO-235; Admiralty A3802; NGA 3412. * [Suther Ness (2)] Date unknown (station established 1904). Essay On Video Game And Its. Active; focal plane 8 m (26 ft); flash every 3 s, white, red, or green depending on direction.

7 m (23 ft) square cylindrical skeletal tower enclosed by white aluminum panels. Plato's Theory. John Dally has a distant view, and on Video and its Side Effects, Google has a satellite view. Hunger Meaning. Located on Essay Addiction and its, a low cape sheltering the north side of the harbor at Brough, on i have i may to be, the north coast of Whalsay. Island accessible by on Video Game and its, ferry from Laxo on Shetland Mainland; lighthouse accessible by a short walk. Site open, tower closed. Plato's Theory. Operator: Northern Lighthouse Board. ARLHS SCO-233; Admiralty A3804; NGA 3416. Out Skerries Light, Bound Skerry, June 2006. photo copyright Anna Jensikova; used by Essay on Video Game and its Effects, permission.

Eswick Area Lighthouses [Moul (Mull) of plato's theory Eswick (2)] 1995 (station established 1904). Active; focal plane 50 m (164 ft); flash every 3 s, white, red, or green depending on direction. Game And Its Effects. 7 m (23 ft) square cylindrical skeletal tower enclosed by white aluminum panels. Robert Sandison has a distant view, and Google has a satellite view. The original lighthouse was destroyed when a large section of the cliff collapsed into i have fears that to be the sea on 5 November 1994. The site is on Video Game Addiction Effects famous for its spectacular view of the Essay on Franco Zeffrelli´s, eastern Shetlands. Note: a mull is a cape or promontory. Located on Addiction Side, a bluff about 1.2 km (3/4 mi) east southeast of wood vs plains Eswick and 1.6 km (1 mi) north of Hoo Stack. Accessible by road and a short hike.

Site open, tower closed. Operator: Northern Lighthouse Board. Admiralty A3796; NGA 3408. [Hoo Stack] Date unknown. Active; focal plane 40 m (131 ft); four flashes every 12 s, white, red or green depending on direction. Trabas has a photo by Kees Aalbersberg, and Google has a satellite view. Located atop a small island off the Essay Game and its Side, east coast of The True Worship film and the Ecstasy Shetland Mainland, about on Video Game Addiction and its Effects, 5 km (3 mi) southeast of Brettabister. Accessible only by boat.

Site status unknown. Operator: Northern Lighthouse Board. Skipping The Turnstile Essays. ARLHS SCO-102; Admiralty A3795.7; NGA 3407. Fair Isle Lighthouses Note: Fair Isle is an isolated island about Essay on Video Game Effects, 50 km (30 mi) south of Shetland Mainland. Skipping The Turnstile Essays. The island is accessible by Essay Addiction Side, air from Lerwick on weekdays year round and also on Saturdays in the summer, or by ferry from Sumbergh three times a week in the summer and once a week in Should Teammates of Performance Any Right Medals? the winter. Game Side. The permanent population is less than 100. Foula Lighthouse * Foula 1986. Hamlet. Active; focal plane 36 m (118 ft); three white flashes, separated by Essay Game Side Effects, 2.7 s, every 15 s. Vs Plains. Approx. 8 m (26 ft) round cylindrical metal tower with lantern and gallery; 4th order Fresnel lens. Lighthouse painted white.

Charles Tait also has a good photo; the large fuel cylinder standing behind the light tower in Tait's photo was removed when the Effects, light was solarized in 2000. Google has a satellite view. When I Have I May Cease. Foula (from the Norse fuglaey , bird island) is an isolated island about 40 km (25 mi) west of Essay on Video Side Shetland Mainland. The permanent population is only about 30, all members of the same family. The island is Should Teammates Enhancing Drugs Users Have Any Right to Their Medals? accessible by Essay Game Addiction and its Side Effects, ferry, and ecotours and self-catering accommodations are available. Plato's Theory. Located at the south point of the Game Addiction, island; accessible by The True of Michelangelo in the film The Agony and the Ecstasy Essay, hiking trail. Addiction And Its. Site open, tower closed. Operator: Northern Lighthouse Board. ARLHS SCO-085; Admiralty A3860; NGA 3562.

Fair Isle South Light, Fair Isle, May 2006. Flickr Creative Commons photo by Jeroen Minderman. When Fears That To Be. Information available on lost lighthouses: Notable faux lighthouses: Posted September 22, 2004. Checked and Essay on Video Game Side, revised December 28, 2016. Plato's Theory. Lighthouses: 15.

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Hume on Miracles, Frequencies, and Prior Probabilities (1998) Bertrand Russell was reportedly once asked what he would say to God if he were to find himself confronted by the Almighty about why he had not believed in God's existence. He said that he would tell God Not enough evidence, God, not enough evidence![1] But perhaps, if God failed to give Russell enough evidence, it was not God's fault. We are inclined to suppose that God could satisfy Russell by performing a spectacular miracle for Essay on Video Game Addiction and its Side Effects, Russell's benefit. But if the reasoning in David Hume's epistemological argument against belief in miracles [2] is correct, then no matter how hard God tries, God cannot give Russell an evidentially justified belief in Himself by performing miracles.

According to Hume, no matter what miracles God performs, it is always more reasonable to Should Teammates Enhancing Drugs Users Medals?, believe that the event in question has a natural cause and is not miraculous. Hence, if Russell needs a miracle to believe reasonably in God, then Russell is out of luck. Russell cannot complain about God's failure to provide evidence, since none would be sufficient. But God cannot complain about Russell's failure to believe. Hume's argument is actually directed against testimony-based belief in Essay Game Addiction and its Effects, the miraculous, although others have extended the argument to the case of miracles directly experienced.[3] It proceeds by two steps. The first step is an argument for when i have i may to be, the claim that the antecedent probability of an event's occurrence diminishes the credibility of testimony to it. That is, we must not only consider the credibility of the testifier, but also the antecedent probability of that which is testified to. The second step in Hume's argument is a defense of his claim that the miraculous nature of a purported event makes its antecedent probability as small as could possibly be imagined; that any combination of natural events, however antecedently improbable, is antecedently more probable than a scenario involving supernatural intervention. Essay On Video Game Addiction And Its Effects? If this argument is successful, then Hume has successfully impugned the rationality of anyone (including millions of Christians who believe in the resurrection of Jesus) who believes that a miracle has occurred.

In recent years, several attempts have been made to bring considerations based on Bayes' theorem to bear on Hume's essay.[4] But while Bayesian theory explains clearly how one goes from an Should Teammates Enhancing Drugs Have to Their Medals?, antecedent probability to a subsequent probability, Bayesian theory is not so clear on how one establishes prior probabilities in the first place. Some Bayesians have attempted to defend a view that says that prior probabilities can and Essay Game Addiction, must be based on the frequency with which event-types occur in experience. I Have? This model of prior probabilities, I contend, is implicit within Hume's argument against miracles. But this theory of prior probabilities is fraught with difficulties and, I contend, cannot be accepted. Without a frequentist foundation for his antecedent probability claims, Hume's argument against miracles collapses. II. On Video Addiction And Its Side Effects? Antecedent Probabilities in Hume's Essay.

Hume's argument against miracles makes its case against miracles on the grounds 1) that one must consider the antecedent probability of the event reported as well as the credibility of the reporter, and 2) that miracles, as violations natural law, are less probable than any set of vs plains natural events required to explain the known facts. The first of Essay Game Effects these principles is elucidated by Hume as follows: When anyone tells me, that he saw a dead man restored to life, I immediately consider with myself, whether it be more probable, that this person should either deceive or be deceived, or that the fact, which he relates, should have really happened. I weigh the one miracle against the other; and according to plato's theory, the superiority, which I discover, I pronounce my decision, and always reject the greater miracle. If the falsehood of the testimony would be more miraculous, than the Essay on Video Addiction event which he relates; then, and not till then, can he pretend to command my belief or opinion.[5] Now I think this passage makes a somewhat question-begging identification of improbability with miraculousness,[6] but it seems commonsensical. I do not accept everything from the same source with equal assurance. If one of the tabloids were to say that Marcia Clark and Christopher Darden were secretly engaged, I would be rather skeptical of the report, coming from such a source. But I would be far more certain that any report, in that same tabloid, to the effect that Nicole Brown Simpson rose from the dead and was planning to testify in court could not possibly be true.

Hume quotes a saying, I would not believe such a story if it were told to me by Cato,[7] which captures this point nicely. Clearly, in common sense reasoning, the intrinsic incredibility of an event can overthrow the testimony of otherwise credible witnesses. But when one attempts to develop this idea into plato's theory, mathematical probability theory, one must avoid untoward consequences, and Hume simply did not possess the mathematical sophistication to accomplish this. If the Essay on Video Addiction and its theory of probabilistic inference he himself presents in Of Miracles is taken literally, it has the consequence that if the Arizona Republic were to report that I won the lottery, you should disbelieve the report, because my chance of winning the lottery is less than the percentage of erroneous reports by the Republic. But surely this is implausible. The development of Bayes' theorem allows a person to factor in the antecedent probability of an event's occurrence without being forced by one's theory to reject such things as newspaper reports of hunger meaning lottery victories. According to Bayes' Theorem: Bayes' theorem isolates three factors: the prior probability of the hypothesis (in this case, that a miracle has occurred) given background knowledge, the probability of the evidence (in this case testimony) given both the hypothesis and background knowledge, and the probability of the evidence given background knowledge alone. So, to apply Bayes' theorem to Essay on Video Game and its Side Effects, a piece of testimonial evidence, we need to ask 1) how antecedently probably the event testified to is, 2) how likely it would be for this piece of testimony to be put forward given the fact that the hypothesis is true, and 3) how likely this piece of hunger meaning testimony would be regardless of whether the on Video and its Side Effects hypothesis is true or not.

An antecedently improbable event can be strongly supported by testimonial evidence if it is highly probable that the event would not be testified to if it did not occur and i have fears that i may, would be testified to if it did occur. We can see how Bayes' theorem can handle reports of lottery victories. It is true that, in a million-person lottery in which each person enters but once, each person has a one-in-a-million chance of winning that lottery. But one's chance of being reported the winner of the Essay Game Side lottery is Worship film The Agony and the, about as great as one's chance of winning the lottery; in fact, lottery victories are typically reported just in case lottery victories occur. P(h/k) (the likelihood that someone won a lottery) may be low in Essay on Video Addiction and its Side Effects, these cases, but p(e/k) (the likelihood that this person would be reported as the lottery winner) is also equally low.

But in the case of miracles, these are often falsely reported, sometimes even by Enhancing Users Have Any Right, otherwise credible witnesses. So Hume's suspiciousness of miracle reports seems justified, in that one must carefully consider the prior improbability of the miracle report and and its Effects, accept the report only if accepting the miracle would be accepting a lesser improbability than rejecting the Worship of Michelangelo The Agony and the Ecstasy Essay claim and believing that this miracle was falsely reported. III. The Prior Improbability of Miracles. So far, so Humean. But while our argument so far would lead us to reject many miracle reports, it hardly suffices to show that a reasonable person will reject all such reports. All we have shown is Game Side Effects, that if p(h/k) is sufficiently low, then this factor can require us to disbelieve the miracle report even when p (e/h k) is plato's theory, high.

What it does not do is show that p(h/k) is, or ought to be, always sufficiently low that no matter how high p(e/h k) is and on Video Addiction Effects, how low p(e/k) is, belief in the hypothesis that a miracle has occurred will always be unjustified. We can imagine testimony of Worship film Ecstasy any finite strength; it is always possible to on Video, add more and more independent witnesses, give them almost lethal doses of truth drugs, make denying the miracle very rewarding and make affirming it very painful or lethal, etc. In order to guarantee that disbelief in miracles will always be rational, it is Should Enhancing Drugs Have Any Right to Their Medals?, necessary that the Addiction and its Side prior probability of their occurrence be zero. Or, if not zero, at least very, very, very low. And it is quite true that, for hunger meaning, many individuals, miracles are not quite that hard to believe in. So we need an argument for step 2, explaining why miracles should be given a zero or near-zero probability. And indeed Hume provides one:

A miracle is a violation of the laws of nature, and as a firm and unalterable experience has established these laws, the proof against a miracle, from the very nature of the fact, is Side, as entire as could possibly be imagined.[8] Now the concept of a miracle as a violation of the laws of nature has its problems, but if an hunger meaning, event did not contradict our naturalistic expectations, we would not be inclined to look for a supernatural cause for it. One may say the birth of a baby is on Video, a miracle, but one does not mean to Should Teammates Users Have, suggest that births so contradict naturalistic expectation that we should perhaps consider the possibility that they occur by divine intervention. But Hume points out that our confidence in human testimony is based itself on experience; on that past conjunction between testimony and the truth of what is testified to. The experiential basis for confidence in testimony cannot be as strong as the experiential basis for the laws of nature. So, Hume argues, testimony that contradicts expectations generated by natural law should be rejected as false. That some person deviate from this rule and accept testimony to miracles is, on Hume's view, to be explained in terms of cognitive pathology. To understand this better, let us consider a case that was certainly in the back of Hume's mind when he wrote Of Miracles, the case of the resurrection of Addiction and its Jesus. Some people in Hume's time, as well as today, have argued that one ought to believe that Jesus rose from the dead because no believable story can be told about how certain well-established events such as empty tomb reports, appearance claims, and the rapid spread of Christianity, could have occurred had there been no resurrection. They often point out what seems to be the incredibility of naturalistic stories concerning the beginnings of Christianity. For example, some opponents of Jesus's resurrection have maintained that the disciples stole the body of Jesus and then pretended that the tomb was empty because its occupant had risen from the dead.

But critics of this theft theory have pointed out that we have reason to hunger meaning, suppose that many of the apostles, who would have had to have been the perpetrators of this hoax, were martyred for proclaiming Jesus's resurrection. Since human beings typically do not die for things they know to be untrue, it is on Video Game Addiction Side Effects, argued that the theft theory is less plausible than the when that claim that Jesus really did rise from the Essay on Video Side Effects dead.[9] It is here that Hume's argument goes to work. If twelve people's dying for what they know to be untrue is improbable, it is even less probable that Jesus rose from the hunger meaning dead. A resurrection is a violation of a law of nature, people dying for a known falsehood is at most a psychological oddity. The experiential support for the claim Dead people stay dead is Essay Addiction Side Effects, greater than our experiential support for plato's theory, people never die for things they know to be false. So if we must choose between the on Video theft theory and accepting a resurrection (and of course these need not be our only choices), then the theft theory, with all its problems, must be accepted. Of course, sometimes we receive evidence that might convince us to alter our beliefs about what the laws of nature are. Jimmy Baca´s Are Taking Americans"? Thus pre-Einstein, it was thought to be naturally impossible that someone could travel in a near-light-speed spaceship and age almost not at all, while people on earth age fifty years. But the very reason we have for doubting the expectation we formed based on what we thought the laws of nature were is exactly the reason we have for supposing the event could occur without supernatural intervention.[10] But one might ask Hume at this point, what about God?

Suppose someone already believes in God, or thinks it at least possible that God exists. And suppose one is forced to choose between a theft theory and a resurrection. Now it seems unlikely that God would cause a group of people to engage in a conspiracy to on Video Addiction Effects, propagate a religious hoax about some teacher's rising from the of Michelangelo film and the Ecstasy Essay dead and then give them the courage (or foolhardiness) to defend their hoax to the death. But it does seem to Essay on Video Effects, fit better the wood bison vs plains bison traditional picture of God that He might raise a great prophet, or his son, from the dead to and its Effects, certify that person's special place in his scheme of things. And considerations like these are deliberately left out of Hume's account of how one assesses the credibility of plato's theory miracles. Indeed, these considerations are deliberately left out of Essay Effects Hume's account. Expectations considering the possible intentions of supernatural agents are not grounded in The True of Michelangelo film Essay, experience, and therefore cannot be factored into reasonings concerning matters of fact.

Though the being to whom the miracle is ascribed be almighty, it does not, upon this account become a whit more probable; since it is impossible for us to know the attributes or actions of such a being, otherwise than from the experience we have of his productions, in the usual course of Essay Side Effects nature. Wood Bison? This still reduces us to past observation, and obliges us to compare the instance of the violations of Game Side truth in Poem "So Mexicans Are Taking from Americans" Essay, the testimony of men, with those of the violation of the Game Addiction Side Effects laws of nature by miracles, in order to judge which of them is most likely and probable. [11] (italics mine). This is plato's theory, a strong statement of Hume's empiricism concerning the sources of probability judgments, and it is the key to his position on miracles. Only those probability judgments that can be directly tied to experienced frequencies (in this case the frequency of false statements as opposed to the frequency of miraculous violations of the laws of nature) can be relevantly employed in assessing the Essay on Video Game and its Side probability that an event has occurred. Much of Hume's discussion in Part I of Of Miracles enunciates a frequentist theory of probability assessment. Consider the following passage, which is typical:

And, as the evidence, derived from witnesses and vs plains, human testimony, is founded on past experience, so it varies with the experience, and is regarded either as a proof or a probability, according as the Essay Game Addiction conjunction between any particular kind of report and any kind of object has been found to be constant or variable. There are a number of circumstances to be taken into consideration in all judgments of this kind; and the ultimate standard, by which we determine all disuptes, that may arise concerning them, is always derived from experience and observation.[12] It will be the contention of my subsequent discussion that this connection between experience and probabilities that Hume draws here, while seeming to accord with common sense, really cannot be sustained. I maintain that proper and correct prior probabilities cannot straightforwardly be read off of experience, although I certainly do not deny that experience plays a vital role in our decisions about what is or is not probable. The problem is that experience does not come to us in clean-cut pieces of uninterpreted fact.

Rather, what we call experience is interpreted in terms of already-existing theoretical constructs. In this essay it seems that Hume, careful and skeptical thinker that he was, betrays a commitment to the Enlightenment ideal of a perfectly neutral and presupposition-free inquiry, an ideal shown by more recent developments in the philosophy of science to Santiago Baca´s Americans", be impossible to achieve. IV. Probability and Essay and its Effects, its Empirical Foundations. According to plato's theory, Hume, probabilistic beliefs concerning the intentions of a supernatural being are inadmissible in reasonings concerning matters of fact because these beliefs fail to be grounded in experience. This insistence has been enunciated by on Video Game and its Side, Bayesian theorists, and it is the frequency theory. But the frequency theory has fallen on hard times, and most Bayesian theorists do not accept it, largely because of difficulties related to the problem of the single case.

The problem is this. Frequencies give us information as to how often event-types have occurred in The True Worship of Michelangelo The Agony, the past. But we often want to Essay on Video Game Addiction, know the probability of particular events: this coin-toss, this horse-race, this piece of testimony to the miraculous, etc. When I Have That I May? If we are to accept Hume's conclusion that testimony to on Video Game Effects, the miraculous ought never to be accepted, we need to hunger meaning, show more than just that rejecting testimony to miracles in Essay Game Effects, general is a good idea because false miracle claims outnumber true ones. Many Christians are skeptical of miracle claims put forward by televangelists, but nonetheless believe that the evidence in support of the wood bison vs plains resurrection of Game Effects Jesus, and Should Teammates of Performance Enhancing, perhaps in support of some modern miracles, is Game and its Side Effects, sufficient to overthrow our ordinary presumption against accepting miracle reports. Frequentists have attempted to assess the prior probability of individual purported events by assimiliating them some class of events. Thus, we assess the probability of a particular coin-toss as 1/2 in virtue of its membership in the class of coin-tosses. But the question is which class the relevant reference class is. The claimed resurrection of Jesus falls into many classes: into the class of miracles, into the class of events reported in Scripture, the class of events reported by Peter, the class of events believed by millions to The True Worship in the film The Agony and the Ecstasy, have occurred, into the class of events basic to the belief-system of a religion, etc. Of course it is what is at issue between orthodox Christians and their opponents whether the class of Game and its Side Effects miracles in hunger meaning, the life of Jesus is empty or relatively large. Wesley Salmon attempts to Essay on Video Game Side Effects, solve this problem by defining the conception of an epistemically homogeneous reference class.

A class is homogenous just in case so far as we know it cannot be subdivided in a statistically relevant way. Thus, according to Salmon, if Jackson hits .322 overall but hits .294 on Wednesdays, the Wednesday statistic is not to be treated as relevant unless we know something about i have fears i may to be, Wednesday that makes a difference as to how well Jackson will bat. Thus, according to Salmon, the relevant reference class is the largest homogeneous reference class; we should try to get a sample as large as we can without overlooking a statistically relevant factor.[13] There are two difficulties with this method as an attempt to satisfy Hume's strong empiricist requirements for Essay on Video Game Addiction Effects, properly grounded probability judgments. First, questions of statisical relevance cannot be fully adjucated by appeal to frequencies. Wood Vs Plains Bison? Second, the very heuristic of selecting the largest homogeneous reference class cannot be read off experience. On the first point, consider the situation of a baseball manager who must choose between allowing Wallace to bat or letting Avery pinch-hit for him. Wallace has an overall batting average of .272, while Avery's is on Video Game Addiction Effects, .262. But the pitcher is left-handed, and while Wallace bats .242 against left-handed pitching, Avery bats .302.

Nevertheless, the pitcher is Williams, and while Avery is 2-for-10 against Williams, Wallace is Should of Performance Enhancing Drugs Users Have Any Right to Their Medals?, 4-for-11. Have these batters faced Williams too few times for this last statistic to count? And can this be straightforwardly determined from on Video Addiction and its, experience? What is needed is a judgment call about the relevance of this statistical information, and this judgment cannot simply be read straightforwardly from frequencies. Wood Vs Plains? The frequentist's epistemology for probabilistic beliefs, insofar as it is an attempt to conform to empiricist/foundationalist constraints, seems impossible to complete. On the second point, is the heuristic of selecting the smallest homogeneous reference class justified simply by an appeal to experience? Admittedly it makes a certain amount of common sense. Addiction Side Effects? But this attempt to vs plains bison, go from Essay on Video Game Side Effects, a statistical is to and the, an epistemological ought seems to Essay on Video Addiction, suffer from with the same (or worse) difficulties that getting ought from is suffers from in ethics, and here again Hume's empiricist/foundationalist assumptions impose an impossible burden on probability theory. The frequency theory seems clearly to be the The True of Michelangelo in the The Agony and the Ecstasy theory of Effects priors that Hume would have adopted had he been involved in the contemporary Bayesian debate on prior probabilities. But even this theory fails to adjudicate the issue concerning miracles in Hume's favor or in favor of the defenders of miracles, because it lacks the resources within itself to select the appropriate reference class. This inability to plato's theory, provide determinate answers to questions of probability is what makes this theory inadequate for resolving the question of on Video Addiction and its Side miracles.

Therefore Hume cannot justify his claim that it is Should Have, never rational to believe testimony to any miracle on the grounds that miracles are less frequent in experience than false miracle reports.[14] V. Hume's Essay Without Frequency Theory. There are two responses which Humeans might make in defense of Hume's position on miracles if they are persuaded that the on Video frequency theory of prior probability is inadequate. The True Film Essay? One is to challenge the Essay on Video Addiction and its Side coherence of the fears i may cease employment of probabilistic reasoning on the part of persons committed to the possibility of evidence for miracles.[15] It might be suggested that, in virtue of our custom-and-habit imposed commitment to a law-governed universe, persons are committed to a Humean view of miracles, even though, incoherently, they may treat miracles at times as if they were epistemic possibilities or even actualities. Since coherence is a requirement of Bayesian rationality even for people who accept a subjectivist theory of prior probabilities, it might be argued that all miracle-believers are irrational because their belief-systems are incoherent. But it is Essay on Video Addiction Effects, not clear why it is incoherent to suppose that the vast majority, but not absolutely every, event has a natural cause.

That we usually ignore, for practical purposes, the possibility of supernatural intervention does not mean that we are committed to assigning a vanishing probability to supernatural intervention. Some possibilities are sufficiently remote as to make it unreasonable to try to do anything about them, but not so remote as to require us to disbelieve strong testimony to Santiago Baca´s Poem "So Mexicans Jobs from, these possibilities. And, of course, people pray for supernatural intervention; this would be a waste of time unless such intervention were thought possible. Humeans need an Essay on Video Side, argument to show that persons who take divine intervention to plato's theory, be epistemically possible must have incoherent personal probabilities. Essay On Video Addiction And Its? Such an Teammates Drugs Have to Their, argument, to my knowledge, has not been provided by Hume or by anyone else. Michael Root offers an Essay Addiction and its Side Effects, argument in support of Hume that, in essence, makes a charge of self-referential incoherence against those who employ testimony to support belief in miracles. According to Jimmy "So Mexicans Are Taking Jobs from Americans" Essay, the view Root attributes to Hume, testimony owes its force to the Principle of the Uniformity of Essay on Video Effects Nature. Hunger Meaning? If we are to make an inference from the truthfulness of past testimony to the truthfulness of present or future testimony, we need to assume that nature is uniformly lawful; that what goes on Game Addiction Side Effects, in the future will resemble what went on in the past.

But testimony to a miracle is i have that cease to be, testimony to on Video Game Effects, the effect that nature is not uniform. Thus, if nature is uniform, then testimony to the miraculous is false, but if nature is not uniform, then testimony is not a reliable source of information, and therefore it fails to Worship of Michelangelo and the Ecstasy, justify belief. In neither case is it possible to have a justified, true, belief that a miracle has occurred.[16] But this argument conflates the claim that the future will resemble the past in some respect with the claim that nature is strictly uniform in the sense that it is deterministic and closed. It should be evident that the possibility of making probabilistic judgments based on testimony does not depend on nature being strictly uniform; that is, on strict natural-law determinism being true. If it did, then the acceptance of indeterminism in the area of quantum mechanics would have destroyed the Game Effects scientific enterprise which, after all, relies heavily on testimony for its operation. We do need to believe that what has happened in the past is some indication of what is plato's theory, likely to happen in the future.

And admittedly we would have little confidence in our probabilistic beliefs if nature did not behave lawfully to a very large extent. But the traditional theistic view is that nature obeys its God-given laws almost all the Essay on Video Side time, and those laws, as we understand them, form our expectations concerning what we expect to happen in the future. Plato's Theory? But sometimes God intervenes for a good reason which is not entirely transparent, but still not entirely opaque, to human beings. There are resemblances between the way in which nature behaves in the past and the way it will behave in the future (God the on Video Side Effects creator of nature sees to that). Enhancing Users To Their Medals?? But beliefs about the likely plans and purposes of God must play a role in the credence functions, not only of believers, but of those who think God's existence epistemically possible. And Its Effects? What is necessary to plato's theory, make probabilistic judgments is that we have some idea of Essay on Video and its Effects what would confirm or disconfirm those judgments. It is hunger meaning, not necessary to Essay on Video Game Addiction and its Side, assume nature to be a closed, deterministic system. The other basic line of Worship film Ecstasy argument involves the Essay Game Effects contention that in rejecting Hume's naturalistic constraints on prior probabilities, we open the floodgates and allow that just any belief may be rational. Dorothy Coleman responds to the charge that Hume's position involves a dogmatic rejection of supernatural causation as follows: The difficulty with this argument is hunger meaning, that it justifies too much.

First, unless one assumes that all anomalous events appropriate for Essay and its, God to cause are so caused, one cannot rationally discriminate between those that are and those that are not. Second, one can no more reasonably assume that an anomalous event is caused by God given a set of assumptions about the existence and nature of God any more than one can say the event is caused by unknown alien life-forms, gremlins, demons, fairies, or any other fanciful creature given a similar set of assumptions about Jimmy Baca´s "So Mexicans Are Taking from Essay, their imagined pattern of Essay on Video Game Addiction Side Effects behavior. The internal consistency of a causal explanation is not sufficient for qualifying it as a reasonable scientific hypothesis.[17] In response to Coleman's first point, it should be pointed out that religious believers, and even religious unbelievers, can, based on their own belief system, have ideas with respect to what they expect God (if God exists) to do. Bison Bison? Healings and Essay on Video Game and its Side, resurrections are more in character with the Christian God than, say, providing the Notre Dame football team with supernatural assistance in winning championships. Catholics are more likely to believe miracle claims involving the The True Worship film The Agony and the Essay Blessed Virgin Mary than are Protestants. On Video Game Addiction? Of course, one can say God did it about anything. But one can discriminate between actions more in character for God and those less in character. Those who believe in plato's theory, miracles typically believe that God has performed many miracles over a long period of time, and can formulate a general theory as to what types of miracles are most likely under certain circumstances.

Expectations concerning the activities of Essay and its Side God are not going to wood vs plains bison, be as precise as expectations concerning electrons; nevertheless they are sufficient to make some miracle claims more plausible than others, relative to a belief system. Of course, Coleman will no doubt respond to this by saying that while some miracle claims are more plausible than others relative to some belief system or other, they are not more probable objectively. But if she is asking for on Video Addiction and its Side Effects, objective probabilities, then she needs a theory of objective probability that permits us to grade the probability of particular events. The frequency theory promised to Worship of Michelangelo film The Agony and the Ecstasy Essay, do this, but, as we have noticed, it is a failure. So in order to object in this manner, she needs to produce a theory of prior probability according to which the most probable miraculous scenario is less probable than the Game Side Effects least probable non-miraculous scenario. This is a daunting task, to i have that i may cease to be, say the least. As for Essay and its Side Effects, gremlins, etc., it makes a good deal of difference whether the advocate of i have fears that a gremlin-theory has some idea of what a gremlin is more or less likely to do. On Video Addiction And Its Side Effects? If there is some kind of probability curve for gremlin behavior, then we can see whether anything like the expected gremlin activities are taking place.

If they aren't, then the gremlin theory is disconfirmed. If the gremlin advocate simply wishes to hunger meaning, attribute this, that, and the other to gremlins without offering any suggestion as to what gremlins are likely to Essay on Video Game Addiction Side, do; if the gremlin advocate offers gremlin hypotheses only after the fact, whenever other types of explanation are difficult to The True film The Agony Ecstasy Essay, find, then gremlin-hypotheses are empirically empty, and are not really hypotheses at all. The miracles attributed to God in Essay and its Side Effects, the Biblical tradition do not seem to be typical gremlin-antics. But, I realize that it is logically possible that someone else's credence function might be different from mine. But even on Santiago Baca´s Are Taking Jobs Essay, the subjectivist theory of prior probabilities I am not required to on Video Game Addiction and its Side Effects, admit the existence of real rational gremlin-believers. I happen to think that the evidence that gremlins did not raise Jesus from the dead, indeed the evidence that gremlins do not exist, is sufficiently strong that even if one began with a high prior probability for gremlins, this prior would wither in the face of the evidence against their existence. Indeed, I am strongly inclined to suspect irrationality in those who believe in gremlins.

But what underlies this belief is simply the plato's theory a posteriori evidence against their existence, and not some general theory of Essay on Video Addiction and its Effects prior probabilities. A Bayesian evolutionist might perhaps admit the theoretical possibility that a creationist could be rational, while at the same time maintaining that in fact all creationists are irrational. An opponent of miracles can indeed maintain that investigation of the Should Teammates Drugs Users Have Any Right evidence in support of purported miracles will prove that none of these miracles can be accepted by and its Side Effects, reasonable people concerning the facts surrounding them. But I maintain that we cannot have what Hume hopes to Teammates Enhancing Drugs to Their, provide, an argument from the Essay on Video Addiction Side nature of the fact that would make the fears that very investigation of particular miracle claims unnecessary. But, perhaps there is on Video Game and its Side, something inherent in supernatural hypotheses that makes it the case that they are empirically empty. Keith Parsons, in criticizing attempts to provide scientific support for theistic beliefs, writes: Science is unavoidably naturalistic, or atheistic if you prefer. Teammates Have To Their Medals?? Science operates in terms of scrutable, independently testable entities that operate in Essay Game and its Side, accordance with knowable regularities.

Supernatural beings, on the other hand, are essentially mysterious; claims made on when that i may to be, their behalf are not independently checkable, and there are no laws of supernature governing their behavior. On Video And Its Effects? Furthermore, explanations in when i have that cease to be, terms of supernatural entities are inevitably post hoc and untestable. In other words, proponents of supernaturalistic theories can glibly account for things we already know, but become strangely silent when asked to predict something new, something that would allow their theory to on Video Game Addiction Side Effects, be tested.[18] Even though the locus of discussions of miracles is of Performance Users Any Right, historical rather than scientific, if it is the case that supernaturalist hypotheses are inevitably untestable, this would mean that supernaturalist claims cannot be genuinely supported by Essay Addiction Side Effects, evidence. But some points can be made in response to i have fears i may to be, this position. First of all, I see no in principle impossibility in laws of supernature. One cannot, of course, generate deterministic laws governing divine conduct, but one cannot generate such laws concerning the behavior of subatomic particles, either.

One can, of on Video Game Addiction course, form probabilistic expectations concerning the Teammates of Performance Have conduct of subatomic particles, but, as we have noted, one can generate probabilistic expectations concerning divine conduct as well. Essay Side? It would disconfirm belief in the Christian God if Jim Bakker were to die and rise again on the third day, ascending into heaven a few weeks later. The laws of The True Worship of Michelangelo in the The Agony Ecstasy supernature that Christians or other theists are inclined to postulate may not be as detailed as the laws scientists hope to discover in nature, but they leave theistic claims open to confirmation and disconfirmation. Second, someone who postulates a miraculous account of Essay Game and its Effects something may try to claim that by admitting a miracle in the background, we render a number of natural events more open to naturalistic explanation. If we find that someone refuses to hunger meaning, recant his faith when threatened with death by torture, this occurrence is a natural event.

The explanation for this may be a very strong, sincere belief that a miracle has occurred, again a natural event. But it may be that the least forced explanation for this sincere belief is Essay Addiction and its Side, that a miracle did occur. It is a mistake to Should Teammates of Performance Drugs Have to Their Medals?, think that just because a theory involves commitment to the supernatural, that the supernatural content is Essay on Video Game Addiction, all that there is to plato's theory, the theory. A supernaturalist theory can have a naturalistic trail of evidence for which can be found or not found. Those who believe that Jesus was raised from the Game Addiction and its Effects dead believe that Jesus's body will not be found. If it is found (or if it had been found in the first century), traditional Christian belief will be faced with a devastating disconfirmation. Wood Bison? If believers choose (or had chosen) to maintain their belief somehow in Essay on Video Game, the face of this kind of counterevidence, this would perhaps show their irrationality, but would not show the untestability of bison vs plains bison their belief per se. It is quite true that it is always possible to save a supernaturalist hypothesis from refutation by Essay on Video and its Effects, manipulating the theological background beliefs to protect one's theory. Historical evidence against Jesus's resurrection could be passed off as Satanic delusion, for example.

Recall Edmund Gosse's attempt to save creationism by saying that the fossils were put in Teammates Enhancing Drugs Users Any Right, the ground by God to fool the scientists. But, as is familiar from Duhem, it is possible to save naturalistic theories by adding auxiliary hypotheses.[19] There may be more temptation to do this in the case of supernaturalist hypotheses, but I see no reason why the temptation could not be avoided. Admittedly, many people who have advanced supernaturalist theories in a scientific context have used the supernatural content of their beliefs as a kind of all-purpose escape clause to avoid the impact of counterevidence. A good example would be scientific creationists of the young earth variety, whose main explanation for the sedimentation of different life forms is a worldwide Noachian deluge. On Video Addiction Side? As examples of difficulties for this kind of Santiago Baca´s Poem "So Mexicans Jobs from Essay theory, we might mention the fact that it is hard to explain how all earthly species could get into an ark whose dimensions are given in Essay on Video Game Addiction Effects, Scripture, the Baca´s "So Mexicans Are Taking Jobs from Americans" fact that it is hard to see how species could relocate at such great distances from Essay and its Effects, Ararat after the Flood, and the fact that if the earth is as young as they claim, it is hard to see how there can be stars 500,000 light years away. In Abusing Science Philip Kitcher claims that while creationists propose to escape the claim that they are proposing an explicitly religious theory by not making specific reference to the revealed character of the Creator, in fact they deal with difficulties for their theory either by ignoring these difficulties or by appealing to hunger meaning, the august and mysterious nature of God as an all-purpose escape clause. A comment like this, for Whitcomb and Morris's The Genesis Flood , is an example of the use of such an escape clause:

The more we study the fascinating story of animal distribution around the Game Addiction Effects earth, the wood bison vs plains bison more convinced we have become that this vast river of Essay Addiction Side variegated life forms, moving ever outward from the Asiatic mainland, across the contintents and seas, has not been a chance and haphazard phenomenon. Instead we see the Teammates Drugs Have Any Right to Their hand of God guiding and Essay Game Addiction Side Effects, directing these creatures in ways that man, with all his ingenuity, has never been able to fathom, in order that the great commission to the postdiluvian animal kingdom might be carried out, and that they might breed abundantly in The True Worship of Michelangelo and the, the earth, and be fruitful and multiply upon the earth (Gen 8.17).[20] Of course, it may be a divine mystery how these things happened. Essay On Video Effects? But if it is, the Baca´s Are Taking from Americans" Essay right thing to say from the point of view of and its science (or even reasonable belief-formation) is that they happened in some other way, in a way that requires less faith in divine mysteries. But while Kitcher quite adeptly diagnoses the Jimmy Baca´s "So Mexicans from Americans" use of religious concepts to insulate a theory from empirical disconfirmation, he explicitly indicates that theologically grounded theories need not employ an all-purpose escape clause. In fact, he mentions the nineteenth century Catastrophists, who presented disconfirmable creationist hypotheses, and he even quotes one Catastrophist (Sedgwick) who abandoned his theory in Essay on Video Addiction Side, the face of contrary evidence.

Although pure versions of Creationism were no longer in vogue among scientists by the end of the eighteenth century, they had flourished earlier (in the writings of Jimmy Baca´s "So Mexicans from Essay Thomas Burnet, William Whiston and others). Moreover, variants of Creationism were supported by a number of eminient nineteenth century scientists--William Buckland, Adam Sedgwick, and Louis Agassiz, for on Video Game Addiction and its Effects, example. These Creationists trusted that their theories would accord with the Bible, interpreted in what they saw as the correct way. However, that fact does not affect the scientific status of those theories. Even postulating an unobservable creator need be no more unscientific than postulating unobservable particles.

What matters is the character of the proposals and the ways in which they are articulated and defended . The great scientific creationists of the eighteenth and Santiago Poem "So Mexicans Are Taking, nineteenth centuries offered problem-solving strategies for many of the questions addressed by Essay on Video Game Addiction, evolutionary theory. They struggled hard to explain the observed distribution of fossils. Baca´s "So Mexicans Are Taking Essay? Sedgwick, Buckland, and others practiced genuine science. On Video Addiction Side Effects? They stuck their necks out and volunteered information about the catastrophes that they invoked to "So Mexicans Are Taking Jobs from Americans", explain biological and theological findings. Because their theories offered definite proposals, those theories were refutable.

Indeed, the theories actually achieved refutation.[21] (italics mine) Young-earth creationists seem to me to be so committed to on Video Side Effects, what they take to be a literal reading of Genesis that they are bound to defend it regardless of what counter-evidence may emerge. But this is not something one can infer simply from the The True film The Agony Ecstasy Essay fact that they are have supernatuarlist commitments. Both naturalists and on Video Addiction, supernaturalists can attempt to insulate their convictions from counterevidence, in Jimmy Baca´s Poem "So Mexicans Jobs from Americans", fact Hume's essay on miracles is seen by many defenders of supernaturalism as a very clever attempt to do just that. But it does seem to be possible for a theist to Addiction and its Effects, make an plato's theory, empirically disconfirmable claim, for instance, that Jesus rose from the dead. Evidence can easily be imagined that would show to Game and its Side, the satisfaction of most rational people that the whole thing is bison, false. Essay On Video Effects? So long as theistic claims are not employed as all-purpose escape clauses to be employed in the face of disconfirming evidence, the claims can be supported by empirical evidence. So where does this leave God and Bertrand Russell? Could God have given him enough evidence for when that i may, his existence?

It is Game Addiction and its Side, possible that Russell's credence function was such that no possible evidence would have been sufficient to convince him that God exists. Hunger Meaning? But from what I know of Russell this was not the case. On Video And Its Side? Whether Russell ignored available evidence, whether God has a reason for not having given Russell the kind of evidence he would have needed, or whether God's only excuse is that he does not exist, is a topic far, far beyond the scope of this paper. V. Postscript Concerning Apologetics. If my foregoing discussion is correct, opponents of, say, the Worship film The Agony resurrection of Jesus cannot appeal to a general theory of probability to prove that anyone who accepts the resurrection is being irrational. It is on Video Game Addiction and its Side, also a consequence that different people can reasonably expected to have different credence functions with respect to bison, Christian (and other) miracle claims. If you want to convince some people that Christ was resurrected, you have a much heavier burden of Essay Game Side proof than you have in convincing others. It must be noted that there is no way, on plato's theory, the model I have presented, to show that everyone who denies the Resurrection is irrational, or engaged in bad faith.

Of course, one can still believe that unbelievers disbelieve because of sin or suppressing the truth, or what have you. But given the Essay and its Side legitimate differences that can exist concerning the antecedent probability of the miraculous, I don't see how such charges can be defended. So the lesson here, I think, is that both apologetics and anti-apologetics should be engaged in persuasion, not coercion, and that the that i may cease attempt to ground irrationality charges against one's opponents is a misguided enterprise.[22] [1] Wesley Salmon, Religion and Science: A New Look at Hume's Dialogues, in Philosophical Studies 33 (1978), p. Essay On Video Game Addiction Side Effects? 176. [2] David Hume, Enquiries Concerning Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of of Performance Enhancing Have Medals? Morals , ed. L. A. Selby-Bigge, 2nd. ed. (1902; Oxford, 1972), pp. On Video Effects? 109-131. [3] For example Michael Root extends Hume's argument to cover direct experience in The True of Michelangelo in the and the Essay, Miracles and the Uniformity of Nature American Philosophical Quarterly 26 (October 1989), pp. Game And Its Side? 338-339. [4] Notably Bruce Langtry, Miracles and plato's theory, the Principles of Essay on Video Addiction and its Relative Likelihood, Internationial Journal for Philosophy of Religion 18 (1985) , pp. 123-131; Jordan Howard Sobel, On the plato's theory Evidence of Testimony for Miracles: A Bayesian Interpretation of David Hume's Analysis, The Philosophical Quarterly 37 (1987) pp. 66-86; David Owen, Hume Versus Price on Miracles and Essay and its Side, Prior Probabilities: Testimony and the Bayesian Calculation, The Philosophical Quarterly 37 (1987), pp.

187-202; and Philip Dawid and Donald Gillies, A Bayesian Analysis of Hume's Argument Concerning Miracles, The Philosophical Quarterly 39 (1989) pp. 57-65. [6] See Victor Reppert, Miracles and hunger meaning, the Case for Theism, International Journal for Philosophy of Religion , (1989) pp. Essay? 44-45. [7] Ibid . p. 115. The Cato referred to here is the ancient Roman patriot Cato, not O. J. Simpson's houseguest Kato, or Nicole's dog of the Jimmy Baca´s Are Taking Jobs Essay same name. [9] For a popular presentation of this type of argument see Josh McDowell, Evidence that Demands a Verdict (Arrowhead Springs, CA: Campus Crusade for Christ International, 1972), 247-257. [10] J. L. Mackie, The Miracle of Theism , pp. 24-25.

[13] Salmon, The Foundations of Essay on Video and its Side Scientific Inference (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1967), pp. 90-93. [14] These objections were suggested to me by in conversation by Patrick Maher. [15] Howard Sobel mentioned this possibility to Enhancing Medals?, me in Essay on Video Game Addiction Side, correspondence. [16] Root, Miracles and the Uniformity of Nature, pp. 337-338. [17] Dorothy Coleman, Hume, Miracles and Lotteries, Hume Studies (December 1988), pp.

339-40. [18] Keith Parsons, Is there a Case for Christian Theism? in J. P. Moreland and Kai Nielsen, Does God Exist: The Great Debate (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1990) p. 189. [19] Pierre Duhem, Aim and Structure of Scientific Theory , ch. 6. [20] John Whitcomb and Henry M. Morris, The Genesis Flood (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1961), p. 128. [21] Philip Kitcher Abusing Science: The Case Against Creationism (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1982), p. 125.

[22] I am indebted to Jimmy Santiago Poem "So Mexicans Are Taking Americans" Essay, Patrick Maher and Mark Vuletic for helpful comments on Essay on Video and its Side Effects, previous drafts.

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The 9/11 Conspiracy: A Skeptics View. By Ernest Partridge, Co-Editor. The Crisis Papers. Note: This essay provoked more than five hundred responses. The best of these, with my replies, follow this essay. No testimony is sufficient to establish a miracle unless the testimony be of such a kind that its falsehood would be more miraculous than the fact which it endeavors to establish. David Hume, On Miracles.

This essay is certain to make many readers very angry with me. But ya gotta do what ya gotta do. The Evidence Problem: Flight 77 went off the radar screen in the vicinity of the Kentucky/Ohio border. This whole dotted path [on a map displayed by Fetzer] is a hypothetical or an imaginary path that the plane may have taken, but it was not recorded on Game and its, radar. The True Of Michelangelo In The Film And The Ecstasy Essay! And my belief is in fact the plane actually went down in the Kentucky Ohio vicinity. Then a plane, probably an A-13 Sky Warrior was substituted here very close to Essay on Video Game Addiction and its Effects, Washington DC. Fetzer gives us no citation of the alleged disappearance from the radar screen. (I have heard nothing about this radar disappearance. Of Performance Drugs Users To Their Medals?! Have you?) Then it gets much worse: hypothetical or imaginary path, may have taken, my belief. Not a shred of evidence is offered in Essay on Video Game, support of this fantasy. The World Trade Center. The temperatures were not hot enough to melt steel. True but irrelevant.

This is a persistent criticism by the CT. However, the OV does not claim that the steel melted at the impact points (melting temperature, 2700F), only that it was weakened. Jimmy Santiago Baca´s Are Taking Essay! The temperature sufficient to weaken steel by fifty-percent (1170F) was well within the range of the burning jet fuel and on Video Game Addiction and its Side, office supplies. The debris was quickly collected without inspection and shipped off to Asia for recycling. False. It was relocated to a collection site at Staten Island, where it was examined by Poem "So Mexicans Are Taking Jobs from Americans" forensic engineers, and where personal effects were identified. (Here, here, and here are three of the 16,700 Google hits from a search for World Trade Center and Staten Island and Debris) No steel frame building has ever collapsed because of a fire. Another fact repeatedly asserted by CT-s. Irrelevant, even if true. The WTC towers were brought down by a combination of fire and structural damage caused by the impact from the planes. (The collapse of WTC Building #7 was not caused by impact from planes -- a problem for the CV which we will discuss later).

Now look very carefully at these images of the collapse of the WTC towers. On Video Game Addiction Side Effects! First we have several videos from, (coincidentally, a website that emphatically does not buy the official version). Next, a video from a German language source. (Note the onset of the collapse at bison bison 4:37 and 4:47). Finally, from (with an OV debunking of the CTs, note the images at 2:20 and 3:05). In all these images, you will see that the collapse begins at the points of impact. Below the points of Essay on Video Game Addiction Side, impact, the towers remain in place as the disintegration proceeds from the top down. And this is just the beginning of plato's theory, a long list of anomalies that undercut the official version.

Among them: There were numerous reports of explosions below the impact points at the time the towers were hit. Others report that there were explosions before the on Video Addiction and its Effects, planes hit. Tapes of interviews with air traffic controllers were destroyed. When news of the attack reached the Florida school where Bush was visiting, the bison, Secret Service failed to remove the president from that previously publicized location. There was a flood of put options (anticipations of loss) on American Airlines and United Airlines stock, within the week before 9/11. The website, lists numerous additional anomalies, no doubt, many of these are bogus, but there are others that are troubling. The governments, New York City and State, and the Feds still have a lot of splainin to do. The Attack on the Pentagon . Hundreds of eyewitnesses on on Video, the George Washington Parkway at bison bison morning rush-hour were either (a) victims of and its Side Effects, mass-hallucination, or (b) taken aside and threatened or bribed to testify falsely that they saw a commercial aircraft.

Immediately after the impact, squads of conspirators rushed to the scene (including the inside of the Should Drugs Have to Their, burning Pentagon) to plant body parts, personal effects, and Essay on Video Game Addiction and its, bogus aircraft parts (some, like the engines and landing gear weighing several hundred pounds). Others dumped aviation fuel, to falsely suggest involvement of an airplane. Alternatively, eyewitness testimony of hunger meaning, those claiming to find these parts were also coerced, and on Video Addiction, published photographic evidence faked. All press reports were also concocted to give credence to the official version. Finally, some explanation must be presented as to bison, the fate of Essay Addiction Side, Flight 77 and its passengers, which somehow disappeared without any further trace at the precise time the alleged military aircraft or cruise missile approached and struck the Pentagon. Sorry, but its just too much for me to swallow.

What Does it all Mean? Copyright 2006 by Ernest Partridge. The 9/11 Conspiracy, the Skeptic Replies to his Critics. It turns out that the most accurate prediction of the essay was in the opening sentence: This essay is certain to The True in the film and the Essay, make many readers very angry with me. And so it did, as you will read below. It also provoked by Essay on Video Game Side Effects far the most voluminous response to any of the more than 133 essays that I have published on the web: more than five hundred to Democratic Underground, The Smirking Chimp, and directly to Santiago "So Mexicans Are Taking Jobs from Americans", The Crisis Papers.

I will deal here exclusively with the Crisis Papers collection. Below are the very best of the responses, which I have selected because most of them prompted me to make a careful and often lengthy reply. First, some general remarks: Perhaps the most pivotal paragraph in my essay, regrettably disregarded by many of my critics, was the following: All accounts of the attacks, whether the official version or any of the numerous conspiracy theories, rest upon weak evidence weak, that is, to all those who did not examine the evidence at the scene, or did not have access to evidence with a secure chain of custody. For all others, including myself and presumably all who read this, the evidence is 2nd, 3rd and Nth-hand hearsay.

Case in point: The Pentagon attack. On Video Side Effects! Dozens of e-mails presented irrefutable evidence that an airliner could not possibly have struck the Pentagon on 9/11. But after I posted the essay, I was directed to a website, , with which I was unfamiliar. There I found the following, from several independent sources: (From USA Today, September 13, 2001). When [Sgt.] Williams discovered the scorched bodies of several airline passengers, they were still strapped into their seats. The stench of Teammates Have to Their, charred flesh overwhelmed him. An American Airlines flight attendant reported: She saw parts of the fuselage of an American Airlines plane, a Boeing 757 plane. Essay On Video Game Addiction And Its Effects! She recognized the polished aluminum outer shell, an unpainted silver color that is unique to American Airline planes, and the red and cease, blue trim that is used to decorate the fuselage. One area of fuselage had remaining window sections and the shape of the windows, curved squares not ovals, was also distinct to the 757's she had flown. She also saw parts with the A/A logo, including parts of the tail of the plane.

She spent approximately 15 minutes in the crash area looking at Essay Addiction and its Effects parts of the wreckage, all of which she recognized as coming from a Boeing 757 American Airline plane, the same planes she flew regularly. She did not see any rubber, only metal pieces of fuselage, engine parts and sections of the inside of the plane. If the sources of these report are authentic, then that cinches the case: game, set, match. Baca´s "So Mexicans Americans"! Flight 77, a Boeing 757, struck the Pentagon. But there's the rub.

How do we know that all these reports were not still more made-up stories concocted and released to the press to on Video Game Addiction Effects, tie down the official version? Not too long ago, we could rely on an independent press to report and confirm the facts, and to print retractions and hunger meaning, corrections if they somehow allowed error or unverified claims into print. Bill and Hillary Clinton were engaged in illegal activity in the Whitewater Deal. After all that, why should any responsible citizens pay any more attention to the mainstream media, than a comparable citizen of the Soviet Union should pay attention to Pravda and Izvestia ? . and even in Essay and its Side, that case there is a mutual destruction of arguments and the superior only Worship of Michelangelo in the film Ecstasy, gives us an assurance suitable to that degree of force which remains, after deducting the inferior. Put more simply, this might be called the principle of net credibility. Just as receipts less expenditures leave the profit, so too doubts about on Video Game contradictory theories diminish the hunger meaning, credibility of the stronger theory. No one who is both informed and sane will admit that his explanation of an event defies physical laws. (Of course, any physical generalization which admits of exceptions is, by definition, not a physical law.) Yet Jones, Fetzer, et al insist that to on Video Game Addiction, deny their version of events is to deny physical laws. So who are you goin' to bison, believe? Prof. Fetzer or your own lyin' eyes? While doing this, I gathered from the Internet mostly, hundreds and hundreds of pieces of information; so much so, it amounted to a book-size amount of on Video Addiction and its Effects, data.

I then gleaned and i have to be, reduced it to a more manageable amount. I discovered that the fire fighters and officials were the on Video Game Addiction and its Side Effects, best witnesses for a number of reasons: they were there almost the bison vs plains, entire time - all day; they are professional; they are trained to handle fire and other disaster situations; they have a combined long history of experience - practical and otherwise; as there were numerous accounts, they tended to corroborate one another. Essay On Video Addiction And Its Side! The sources of the plato's theory, firefighters and firefighting officials were Fire Engineering magazine, Firehouse Magazine, the Game, Kean Report testimonies, WTC Task Force Interviews, and Drugs Users Have Any Right to Their, the Oral Histories that the NYT obtained in Aug. 2005 from NYC (Bloomberg had refused to release them) through the FOIA. This last source produced 503 accounts mostly of Game Side Effects, firefighters and officials and emergency medical personnel. I obtained probably 50-80 or more excellent accounts of what transpired that day which I sorted into Worship and the Ecstasy Essay chronological order.

This gave me an account of what occurred from the first response after the on Video Side, first plane struck the North Tower to the time of the collapse of WTC7. The information is very revealing. It tends to support the argument that there was not a controlled demolition at WTC7. Very early on the fire officials had felt the building would collapse. It had a huge bulge in the west wall; it had sustained massive structural damage from debris at bison vs plains the southwest corner - extending for about 10 floors up to on Video Addiction and its, about the 18th floor. It had a massive hole in the center of the south facade. This building stored over plato's theory, 43,000 gallons of diesel fuel.

Some was recovered later but a lot was not. Little was seen to have seeped into the ground so maybe it had burned up. A nearby water main was broken and there was no available water to suppress the fires. At various times of the day, the south side was heavily engaged in fire from ground to roof. There were 26 fires in various locations - not the Game Addiction and its Side, handful that most 9-11 skeptics mention. No fire suppression efforts were undertaken. Officials withdrew fire personnel early in the afternoon. During the late morning and on into the afternoon, numerous officials stated a collapse was imminent. By about 3:30, they created a collapse zone in preparation for plato's theory this. A transit was used to on Video, determine that the building was leaning.

Creaking was heard. Somewhere around the plato's theory, middle of the World Trade Center, there was this orange and red flash coming out. Initially it was just one flash. On Video Game Addiction Effects! Then this flash just kept popping all the way around the building and that building had started to explode. The popping sound, and with each popping sound it was initially an orange and then a red flash came out of the building and i have fears i may cease, then it would just go all around the building on all sides as far as I could see. These popping sounds and Essay Game Effects, the explosions were getting bigger, going both up and down and then all around the building.

Were all the plato's theory, explosions the many witnesses saw and on Video Addiction, heard a result of the fire? The jet fuel would have burned off very quickly (as evidenced by the smoke becoming very dark fairly quickly). A lot of hunger meaning, fuel was burned outside the building as witnessed by the orange fireball outside the building. Jet fuel can only reach maximum temperature in ideal situations: complete oxidation with the fuel turning to a mist (as happens in the jet turbine engine). The ideal burning temperature would not have occurred in the building. There were survivors - one only 20' away from a wing (he still remembers seeing the U on the tail as the plane struck the building) as he huddled under his desk. The wings carry fuel. Several people - on Essay on Video Game Addiction and its Effects, the same floor as the impact - were on of Michelangelo and the Essay, an elevator and were knocked on their backsides by the heat - they were unhurt. And Its! Survivors walked down past the impacted floors and escaped. I Have Fears That To Be! Fire crews made it up to Essay on Video and its, the 78th floor - the hunger meaning, impacted area of one of the towers. . a significant amount of Essay on Video Effects, steel debris - including most of the steel from the plato's theory, upper floors - was removed from the rubble pile, cut into smaller sections, and either melted at the recycling plant or shipped out on Video and its Side, of the Should Enhancing Drugs Users Any Right Medals?, US.

Some of the critical pieces - including the suspension trusses from the top of the Essay on Video Addiction and its Effects, towers and the internal support columns - were gone before the first BPAT team member ever reached the site. Bill Manning (editor Fire Engineering magazine, Jan 2002) said, For more than three months, structural steel from the hunger meaning, World Trade Center has been and continues to be cut up and sold for scrap. the 'official investigation' blessed by on Video Game and its Side FEMA and run by i have that i may to be the American Society of Civil Engineers [the 23 engineers who volunteered for BPAT] is a half-baked farce. We are literally treating the steel removed from the site like garbage, not like crucial fire scene evidence. Glenn Corbett, one of the BPAT (Building Performance Assessment Team) investigators working with FEMA told Congress: The lack of significant amounts of steel for examination will make it difficult, if not impossible, to make a definitive statement as to Essay, the specific cause and chronology of the collapse. If the two massive, dense, very hard engines did not survive and emerge somewhere, how could a relatively soft nose plow through very thick walls? Aluminum could have melted, but not the titanium.

There were objects right next to the crash site on the third floor I believe, which were unburnt: one can see a stool and a computer monitor; completely intact; unmelted, yet the Jimmy Baca´s "So Mexicans Are Taking Essay, most of the plane melted. Please explain. The windows right next to Essay on Video Game, the impact area were not broken. Yes, they were shatterproof, but they were RIGHT next to the impact area. How did the plane do the hunger meaning, 270degree turn in the air which professional pilots have said is virtually impossible for that plane and for a lousy pilot like Hani Hanjour apparently was? He couldn't fly a small Cessna two weeks prior to that. Did he just get lucky? Maybe. There was a lot of tiny debris on the lawn and Essay Game Addiction, some floated out to the traffic on the highway nearby. Shortly after the crash, numerous men quickly scooped up the debris outside and Should Teammates Drugs Have, also many were seen carrying a huge box containing something. All these men were dressed in ties and dress pants.

Why at the Pentagon and at Ground Zero was evidence concealed and whisked away so quickly? Ernest Partridge replies: I will let most of your thorough investigation of the WTC attack stand without rebuttal. My disagreements with and Game Side Effects, doubts about particular parts of that account will be found in my many comments which follow. Your analysis of the Pentagon attack, it seems to me, stands on shakier ground. I've read enough of hunger meaning, these accounts of anomalies, all apparently undocumented and not attributed to on Video Game Addiction Side, eye witnesses, that I am beginning to suspect that they are self-supporting -- i.e., that the validation is incestuous, consisting of references to each other, with no foundation in confirmable fact. Like wild horses tethered to teach other, but none to a hitching post. On the other hand, eyewitness reports, and reports of bison bison, engine parts, aircraft fragments, body parts and passengers' belongings seem to be grounded on more substantial evidence.

That is my impression, but it must be the task of others to prove it. I don't discount the possibility that all these validations of the official view of the Pentagon attack are concoctions. But that would entail a conspiracy of silence and Essay on Video Side Effects, intimidation which, I believe, not even the hunger meaning, Bush crime syndicate could pull off. Much more in Essay Game Addiction Side, the comments that follow. And note especially the final entry in this collection by A. D. Plato's Theory! Kay. In closing, let me say that I find your thorough and open minded investigation of 9/11 to be admirable. Dear Mr. Partridge, Ernest Partridge Replies: I can't respond to all your points, for I have dozens of letters ahead of me to deal with.

So for Game Addiction and its this letter, and all that follow: do not assume that if I fail to plato's theory, address a criticism that I am conceding it. You claim to examine both the Official Version and Conspiracy Theory with equal skepticism, but the article makes it quite clear which one gets the benefit of doubt--it is the Official Story. I am renaming OV as OS, since it is also a conspiracy theory with Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda being the conspirators, yet you reserve the conspiracy label for Alternative Stories (AS), which generally brings scorn by readers upon those who tell such tales. In such matters, articles which attempt to cast aspersions upon AS quite often take the tack of appearing to be equally skeptical of both sides, even somewhat sympathetic to critics, so as to Essay Game and its Side Effects, appear more objective to readers who wish to dismiss critics but want to feel like they are being fair. Your article is a good example of this. I am stating my qualifications now to preclude even the thought that I can be snowed by hunger meaning scientific jargon. I have a degree in mechanical engineering (CCNY, 1970, 3.47 GPA, 3.6 in my major), and have for many years worked for Game and its the UC Berkeley School of Engineering, doing workshops in second year calculus, the foundation of when that i may cease, engineering and physical sciences. The temperatures were not hot enough to melt steel.

True but irrelevant. This is a persistent criticism by Essay Game Addiction Side the CT. However, the OV does not claim that the Teammates of Performance Enhancing Drugs Users to Their Medals?, steel melted at the impact points (melting temperature, 2700F), only that it was weakened. The temperature sufficient to weaken steel by fifty-percent (1170F) was well within the range of the burning jet fuel and office supplies. BOGUS! Analyses by Jim Hoffman, Kevin Ryan, Steven Jones, David Ray Griffin. have been very careful to state that the temps were not hot enough to even WEAKEN steel, LET ALONE melt it, and quite specific that the on Video Game Addiction Effects, OS is that of WEAKENING, not melting, at least after the Baca´s Poem Are Taking Jobs from Americans", first day or two. Your claim is the Essay on Video, one made in the Scientific American article by Michael Shermer supposedly debunking conspiracy stories from a year ago, an article thoroughly debunked by Jim Hoffman . Indeed, the very title of the when i have fears i may cease to be, SciAm article, Fahrenheit 2777, is based upon a falsehood, as 911research never used that figure, as claimed by Shermer. The debris was quickly collected without inspection and shipped off to Asia for recycling. Essay On Video! False. It was relocated to a collection site at Staten Island, where it was examined by forensic engineers, and where personal effects were identified. Plato's Theory! (Here, here, and here are three of the 54,000 Google hits from a search for Essay on Video Addiction Side Effects World Trade Center and Staten Island and hunger meaning, Debris) Fire Engineering Magazine in Essay on Video Addiction Effects, Jan '02 bitterly complained about the lack of access to the debris before it was shipped off, as did Prof Astenah-Asl of UC Berkeley, who headed the investigation by ASCE, he did so in front of a congressional committee in March '02.

No steel frame building has ever collapsed because of wood bison, a fire. Another fact repeatedly asserted by CT-s. Irrelevant, even if true. The WTC towers were brought down by a combination of fire and structural damage caused by the impact from the on Video, planes. (The collapse of WTC Building #7 was not caused by either fire or impact from planes -- a problem for the OV which we will discuss later). Two theories have been put forth, the Baca´s "So Mexicans, Truss Failure Theory, and the Column Failure Theory. Both theories were shown to be impossible via analysis and computer modeling done by Underwriters Laboratories, as shown by Essay Game and its Effects Kevin Ryan's article Propping Up the when i have that, War on Terror which can be found at under articles.

For his good work of exposing government lies, Mr Ryan got fired from his job as laboratory manager for Underwriters. Ernest Partridge Replies: An impressive rebuttal, until we got to the part about collapsing from the top. Then you wrote: Why couldn't demolition be set up to Game Addiction and its Side, try to MAKE IT LOOK LIKE the result of plane impacts and wood, fires? This is pure ad-hoc-ery: positing an unsupported fact to prop up a favored hypothesis. It is also a highly improbable supposition, since it assumes that the planes could be aimed to on Video Game Addiction and its Effects, hit the precise location of the pre-set charges. I Have Fears To Be! Or do you further assume (ad hoc), as I have read below, that numerous charges were set contingently at several different floors in Essay and its, case of bad aim by the pilots?

That strikes me as a stretch. Your 911 essay makes no comment about Shanksville and Flight 93. Ernest Partridge Replies: There were no devious motives for my decision not to deal with Flight 93. My motives were simply these: (a) I chose to limit the scope of my analysis, (b) my sources (Griffin, Jones, Fetzer, etc.) did not deal with Flight 93, and (c) I studied less and thus knew less about Flight 93 than about the other events. Wood Bison Vs Plains! From what I have read, I am simply in no position to Essay on Video Addiction Effects, come to a decision. There is an abundance of hunger meaning, weak evidence on both sides. Sebastopol, CA (5/2) Ernest Partridge Replies:

An insightful and generally accurate analysis. However, as they say, occasionally paranoids do have enemies and some conspiracy theories are true (albeit only a small minority of popular conspiracy theories). Thus it is a mistake to dismiss any and all conspiracy theories as such (which I doubt that you do). Some turn out to be true. Examples: the official White House version of Watergate (third-rate burglary) was false and eventually a conspiracy was uncovered.

The official Bush/Cheney/Rice/Powell (and disgracefully, the mainstream media) reasons for going to war (the Saddam/al Qaeda connection, WMDs, avoiding the smoking gun qua mushroom cloud) were fraudulent, while the Downing Street memos, Joseph Wilson's column and hopefully the Fitzgerald investigation prove that there was a conspiracy afoot. Additionally, I am personally unable to buy the Warren Report version of the JFK assassination, and there is strong statistical, anecdotal and circumstantial evidence that the Essay on Video Addiction and its Side, 2000, 2002 and 2004 elections were fraudulent. The WTC towers were somewhat unusual in when fears that cease to be, that they had bearing walls, support cross-members which carried the floors. Unusual in very tall buildings, as was touted when they were built, but actually a very old way of Essay Addiction and its Side, building buildings, and wood vs plains bison, there are lots of mid-19th century examples in Addiction Side Effects, lower Manhattan. Plato's Theory! When they burn -- and Essay on Video Side, several tons of kerosene does burn pretty nicely -- and the joists are weakened, it is entirely normal for when i have fears that cease such buildings to pancake. Ask any urban fireman; it is, I have been told, a worst-case nightmare.

Interestingly, this seems to be a consensus view of the engineers' report on the collapse. NY 911 Truth Movement (5/2) Ernest Partridge Replies: Surely it is Game Addiction and its not the case that everybody you talk to feels that 9/11 was an inside job. Maybe everybody Tom Foti talks to. Should Users To Their! However, as you can see from Essay on Video Game Side, this sample of letters, not everybody agrees. But what if (almost) everybody felt (as apposed to rationally believed due to evidence) that 9/11 was an Should Enhancing Drugs Users Have to Their Medals? inside job? At one time everybody believed that the earth was flat. Essay Game Addiction Effects! Didn't make it so. Argumentum ad populum (i.e., the nose count) has often proven to be very unreliable.

I liked your essay, which seemed to me far more balanced than what is available elsewhere on the internet. I found the lack of an Santiago Baca´s Jobs official explanation for WTC-7 troubling also and Essay and its, did some searching this evening. I found the following, which is NIST's provisional explanation for the collapse. I think you'll find it's far more credible than the various points of evidence purported to wood bison, support collapse by demolition, as is claimed by virtually every website seeking to establish a coverup of some sort. Dear Dr. Essay Addiction And Its Side Effects! Partridge,

Elizabeth de la Vega (5/2) Ernest Partridge Replies: I am honored to receive your comments, having read your online essays with great interest and admiration. Jimmy Santiago Baca´s Poem Jobs From Americans" Essay! Your voice is an invaluable asset in the growing resistance to the Bush/GOP oligarchy. Santa Monica, CA (5/2) Ernest Partridge Replies: You write: the Side Effects, author states categorically that the in the The Agony Ecstasy Essay, official version of what happened at the Pentagon has to be right. I stated no such thing. Instead, I wrote that neither version is convincing, and the available evidence is weak. (You did read my essay, didn't you?) Several critics have stated that a Boeing 757 couldn't have punched a small hole (16 feet by Essay on Video Game some accounts) in bison bison, the side of the Pentagon, and a picture of said hole is often displayed with the on Video and its Effects, assertion.

That sounds reasonable. The implication is then drawn that a 757 did not strike the Teammates of Performance Enhancing Drugs Have, Pentagon. But that conclusion only on Video Game, follows if the indicated hole was the only damage to the side wall. I Have Fears That I May! I have found no compelling evidence that this was the case. Ph.D. Candidate, May 2006. UCLA Mathematics (5/2) Dear Mr. Partridge, 30 floors of Essay on Video Game Addiction Side Effects, South Tower topple over. What happens to the block and bison, its angular momentum?

Much of the evidence presented by the WTC conspiracy theorists is demonstrably false, fallacious or irrelevant. For example: . The debris was quickly collected without inspection and shipped off to Asia for recycling. False. It was relocated to a collection site at Staten Island, where it was examined by forensic engineers, and where personal effects were identified. (Here, here, and Game and its Side, here are three of the of Michelangelo film and the Essay, 54,000 Google hits from a search for World Trade Center and Staten Island and Essay Addiction and its Side Effects, Debris) I checked the fears cease, links that you provided in on Video Addiction and its Side Effects, your article. Indeed, much effort went into hunger meaning sifting through debris for evidence that would fit in with the official theory of the on Video Addiction and its Side Effects, attack and collapse. Cease To Be! However, I see no evidence in the sites you link to that much effort was put into looking for evidence of the on Video Game and its Side Effects, use of explosive cutter charges on the main steel beams of the towers, or in Should of Performance Enhancing Users Have to Their, following up such evidence. While the blanket statement that The debris was quickly collected without inspection and shipped off to Asia for recycling is certainly an overstatement, it is a fact that much of the structural steel was held only a short time and then sent off for recycling.

Here is Essay on Video Game and its Effects Steven Jones again, on this very subject: I agree with this urgent yet reasoned assessment of expert fire-protection engineers, as boldly editorialized in the journal Fire Engineering. This editorial does not mention the The True Worship in the The Agony Ecstasy, controlled-demolition hypothesis, but rightfully objects to the rapid destruction of the structural steel which would provide crucial evidence from the crime scene. We agree that such destruction of evidence is Essay Game Addiction and its Side wrong, and that a thorough investigation is imperative. Such destruction of evidence shows the astounding ignorance of government officials to the value of fears to be, a thorough, scientific investigation of the largest fire-induced collapse in world history. I have combed through our national standard for fire investigation, NFPA 921, but nowhere in it does one find an Essay Addiction and its Side Effects exemption allowing the destruction of hunger meaning, evidence for buildings over 10 stories tall. (Manning, 2002; emphasis added). If you have not already done so, I would urge you to go to and read through Steven Jones peer-reviewed paper, Why Indeed Did the WTC Buildings Collapse?, which I have quoted from above. As I have sought to demonstrate, he answers most of your objections to the controlled demolition theory. Ernest Partridge Replies: My quarrel is not with the laws of Addiction and its Side Effects, physics (I am quite sane, after all), it is with the putative evidence which, combined with the bison, laws of physics, serve as premises for Jones' (etc.) arguments.

I do not insist that this evidence is Essay on Video Game Addiction false, but I am not convinced that it is true. The foundation of evidence on both sides of the argument is very weak. Hence my skepticism. For more, see the comments that follow the next letter. Dear Dr. Partridge, Ernest Partridge Replies: Remember first of all, that I am a skeptic. By expressing doubt about one side, I am not affirming the fears that to be, other. That said, I would repeat that the on Video and its Side, best evidence I have are my own eyes as I examine the available images.

And it seems quite apparent to those eyes, that the collapse began at the points of impact. Thank you for publishing Dr. Partridge's much needed debunking of the some of the most persistent 9-11 rumors. Although the tower [WTC 1] appears to hunger meaning, collapse in its own footprint, subsequent review of aerial photographs of the site after the collapseas well as damage to adjacent structureswill suggest that debris impacted the Marriott Hotel (WTC 3), the Essay on Video Game Addiction Effects, Customs House (WTC 6), the Morgan Stanley building (WTC 5), WTC 7, and the American Express and Winter Garden buildings located across West Street. The debris field extended as far as 500 ft from the hunger meaning, tower base.

I urge you to read the whole ASCE article. It puts many 9-11 claims to Essay on Video and its Side, rest. Tapes of vs plains, interviews with air traffic controllers were destroyed. Actually not. On Video Addiction Side! Now, the Bush administration has a lot of 'splainin' to do: Why they ignored the of Performance to Their, President's Daily Brief of Aug. 7, 2001, entitled Bin Laden Determined to Attack in U.S.' Why Bush refused to answer questions under oath--and why he insisted that Cheney baby sit him during his questioning. Why Bush cowered in Air Force One instead of Game Addiction and its Effects, flying to Washington to take charge.

Why Cheney and other administration officials ignored the warnings of Richard Clarke. But as far as the state and local governments--not so much. Ernest Partridge Replies: I am awestruck! This is a terrific contribution to The True Worship of Michelangelo The Agony Ecstasy Essay, this discussion. There is more confidence here in the official view than I am able to share, but it presents a vigorous and worthy case for OV. A. D. Kay has clearly given much more study to 9/11, and to the conspiracy theories that followed, than I have -- or likely will.

Thus I am grateful for Essay Addiction and its Effects this case for the official view. The May 9, 2006 Collection: Note: An expansive reply to many of plato's theory, these letters will be found at the end of this collection. EP. I read your essay entitled The 9/11 Conspiracy: A Skeptic's View. I have to Essay on Video Game Addiction Effects, say that I share some common ground with you in that I don't believe that the Worship in the film The Agony and the Ecstasy, official version of what happened on Addiction Effects, 9/11 is hunger meaning a reality, nor do I necessarily believe any of the on Video Game Addiction Side, conspiracy theories that are out there.

However, the that cease, way the investigation was handled by the Bush administration really makes me angry and very skeptical of everything. Ernest Partridge replies: With all due respect, I sincerely doubt that hundreds of Ph.Ds . Essay Game Side Effects! have reviewed the evidence [and] believe the Teammates Users Have Medals?, towers and on Video Game and its, Building 7 were demolished. Dozens, perhaps. However, I am confident that at least as many Ph.Ds (including this Ph.D) who have examined the evidence are unconvinced by the hypotheses of The True Worship Ecstasy, David Ray Griffen (Ph.D), Steven Jones (Ph.D) and James Fetzer (Ph.D). Dear Dr. Ernest Partridge, Dear Dr Partridge,

I have just read your piece on 9-11 on Guerilla News. A pleasing blast of sanity! I have occasionally debated with the 9-11 people over here (in the Essay on Video Game Addiction Side Effects, UK) but have pretty much given up. There is Jimmy Santiago Baca´s "So Mexicans Are Taking Americans" Essay no dialogue: just two conflicting views. My base line, I suppose, is on Video Game Addiction Side Effects trying to imagine the meeting - or series of meetings - in Enhancing Users Have Any Right to Their Medals?, which the Essay on Video and its, conspirators agree to do all the extraordinary things they are supposed to have done.

How would that go? So, we're agreed, then: we wire the i have cease to be, WTC buildings with explosives then persuade a bunch of Jihadists to on Video Game Effects, hi-jack them and fly them into the buildings as a cover story. Hunger Meaning! All those in favour? This is Essay Addiction and its preposterous at best. Ernest Partridge replies: Conveniently ignored? Do I detect a note of sarcasm here? For example, consider your points #2 and #3, above. If Hani Hanjour was incapable of plato's theory, flying a Boeing 757, this may indicate, as you suggest, that the OV is false. But it also suggests that (a) reports of Hanjour's incompetence were false, or (b) that Hanjour did not, in fact, pilot the Essay on Video Effects, aircraft.

You did, after all write that Hanjour was supposedly the pilot, which betrays your own doubts about the matter. RE: #3. I also found the story of the plato's theory, cell phone calls from United 93 to be incredible. But how do we explain the reports from the relatives that they received these calls? Were they all liars?

Then I was told that the calls were made by on-board phones (that one finds behind the seats). Essay On Video Game Addiction! So what is the truth? I don't have the authenticated facts. Do you? Returning to the attack on the Pentagon: Now suppose I accepted the CT claim that Flight 77, a Boeing 757, did not hit the Pentagon. In that case, I would be hard-pressed to explain the photos of airplane parts (allegedly) taken at the scene, or the (alleged) eyewitness reports of an airliner, or the (alleged) reports of body parts identified by DNA analysis, and of personal belongings (allegedly) recovered at the scene. Is it possible that all this testimony was false and the result of threats and bribes, and wood bison bison, that the photos and evidence were faked and planted?

Yes, it is possible. Other official versions, for example the Warren Report on the JFK assassination, as well as the assassinations of RFK and Martin Luther King, strike me as not credible. Moreover, I find that accounts that I have read of the on Video Game Addiction and its Side Effects, accidental death of Paul Wellstone simply do not add up. If we had a government and Have, a media that we could trust, then we might at last come to some firm resolution of these questions. But of course, we do not have such a government or media. Dear Dr. Addiction And Its Side Effects! Partridge.

here. In order for that story to hunger meaning, be at theory level it has first to be proven physically possible. You say: . And Its Effects! highly improbable scenario: Charges had to be set beforehand at the points of impact, the 94th to the 98th floors of the wood bison, north tower, and Essay Game Addiction and its Side Effects, the 78th to the 84th floors of the south tower. Both aircraft, in stunning feats of piloting skill, succeeded in striking precisely at those pre-arranged locations. However, all charges placed below those points of impact were either duds or were insufficient to precipitate collapses. The towers stood firm as the demolition moved downward from the impact points. It is quite obvious from Jimmy Baca´s Jobs from Americans" Essay, observing the videos that explosives were planted on Essay on Video and its Effects, many floors, about every third floor for the whole height of the buildings.

Thus it is no coincidence that the collapse started from the floor of in the film The Agony and the Ecstasy Essay, impact as the demolitions could be triggered remotely to begin wherever the perpetrators wanted. Explosions proceeded both up and down from the point of impact and the sequence could be programmed after the plane impact. No coincidence required. Ernest Partridge replies: Quite frankly, I'm about burnt out on this topic, and much of Addiction and its, what I might say in response to your letter I have said earlier. Two points, however: you propose that charges were set on several floors so that they might be set-off by remote control at the floor where the planes happen to hit. I've received a few other letters that said the same.

This strikes me as a desperate attempt to plato's theory, salvage an improbable hypothesis by Addiction making it still more improbable -- adding ad-hoc explanations with no independent warrant, that serve only to hold up the theory. E.g.: Well, if they couldn't know beforehand just where the planes would hit, then THEY MUST HAVE placed many charges. And why believe this? Because it props up the foregone conclusion of controlled demolition. (Its the sort of thing one encounters in young-earth creationist explanations of the formation of the when fears cease to be, Grand Canyon). Second: Read my paper again, and you will find that I do NOT accept that WTC7 was taken down with controlled demolitions. I just don't know.

There are non-CD explanations for the CD like collapse of WTC7.

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Be sure to use italics and bolding for comparable elements, and list company names, location, your position and your responsibilities in a consistent way. If you list the company name in italics first, all companies should be listed that way. Use bulleted lists and phrases instead of sentences. Resume Formats for Accountants. When it comes to resumes, one size definitely does not fit all. If you are an experienced professional with an Essay on Video Addiction and its Side uninterrupted job history, you can consider a chronological resume which lists the companies you worked for and the vs plains positions you held in on Video Game Addiction and its, reverse chronological order. Recent graduates, people changing careers and those who have been out of the workforce for one reason or another can consider a functional resume which includes a Skills section to highlight experience and abilities. These skills may have been acquired on the job, as a volunteer or as part of an when i have fears to be internship. Essay Game And Its! The functional resume may not go into where the Should Drugs Have Any Right skills were acquired. Resumes are changing, along with everything else.

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Discuss the process of female objectification through the works of and its Effects, Olympia [1863] by Manet, Les Demoiselles dAvignon [1907] by Pablo Picasso and plato's theory Violin dIngres [1924] by on Video Effects, Man Ray. Free essay example: Discuss the process of female objectification through the works of Olympia [1863] by. Manet, Les Demoiselles dAvignon [1907] by Pablo Picasso and Violin dIngres [1924] by Man Ray. Female objectification occurs when you regard or treat a woman as a thing or an object, separate from her personal and human attributes or characteristics. [1] This definition is fitting when it comes to exploring the wood bison, works of Manet, Picasso and Man Ray as they all share in the process of female objectification, which are presented through a variety of on Video Addiction and its Side Effects, techniques within their works. Jimmy Baca´s "So Mexicans Jobs From Americans"! These techniques are most notably the use of symbolism, the composition of the nudes and the embellishments which surrounded the subjects. The process of female objectification is also shown stylistically throughout the artists works whether it be traditional art, modern techniques or contemporary movements- all of which invoke numerous interpretations. The painting of Olympia [1863] was described by Manet to on Video Game Addiction and its Effects show female objectification through the debasement of women, their inferior social status, their exploitation as sex objects and their simultaneous elevation. [2] Manet does this successfully throughout the painting, helped by the usage of i have fears cease to be, objects surrounding Olympia herself and within the background of the piece; this helps the Addiction and its Side Effects, progression of female objectification as Manet is able to then use these objects to help sexualise her further.

Manet uses Olympias lavish jewellery to denote her place within society; she wears a gold bracelet (symbolising her wealth) however it is the plato's theory, earrings Olympia wears which help to reveal her to be a prostitute. Although the earrings themselves also symbolise riches, in the start of the twentieth century within Europe, this was considered to be a sign of a common woman. She also wears an orchid in her hair, which symbolises sensuality, along with one of her slippers carelessly tossed to the ground, which give further indication to her profession. [3] The most ironic object however, is the on Video Game Addiction Side, pearl drop attached to the black velvet ribbon around her neck, which is scarcely visible due to Olympias pale skin tone, showing the stark contrast of her riches and indications as to how it was acquired. The pearl itself would normally indicate innocence and decorum, however the Worship of Michelangelo in the film The Agony Essay, sharp contrast of the black ribbon on her skin represents the division between her head (her psychological disposition) with her appearance of an upper class woman, and the rest of her body (her physical disposition), Olympias dark and Game Side licentious occupation. [4] The symbolic use and common understanding of these objects clearly show the process of female objectification as they make it blatantly clear to the viewer what her occupation is. Wood! The black cat within the on Video and its Side, painting also helps to further objectify Olympia and helps to give knowledge of her occupation further. Since the medieval period cats have been a symbol of lust and wood bison vs plains bison promiscuity, and prostitute were often nickname cats, [5] giving a huge indication of Game Side Effects, Olympias profession.

However, historians have argued that Olympia was sexualised further as an object as: the cat is that i may cease symbolic of animal activity and sexuality. The cats tail is raised in a mockery of a phallus. Thus, showing the underlying message of Addiction and its Side Effects, Olympias occupation of a prostitute, objectified for the viewers pleasure. The thick application of paint used to paint the cats tail, gives a sense of Santiago Baca´s Are Taking from Americans", movement and rapidity to the tail which further underlines the rampant and animalistic nature of Olympias profession and objectification. Picassos Les Demoiselles dAvignon, meaning the tarts of Avignon instantly give away the females profession as prostitutes however, if this has been missed by the viewer, the use of objects is Essay Addiction and its Effects also used to depict the The True Worship of Michelangelo The Agony Ecstasy Essay, sense of Addiction and its Side Effects, promiscuity and when fears give away the on Video Addiction and its Side, females occupation. This can be seen by the alien style bowl of fruit in the foreground drawn angularly, and contrasting sharply with the white and black drapery surrounding it [6] . Art historian Wayne Andersen states that the pear and grapes. could be seen as a womans sexe, the pear fleshy vulva invitingly parted, the grapes of Should Any Right to Their, curly pubic hair, [7] symbolising the objectification of Les Demoiselles as prostitutes and thus sexual of the Essay on Video Game Side Effects, male viewers and their male clients. In Man Rays Violin dIngres, he turns his model Kiki into an object, the violin. Man Ray painted the f-holes of the violin onto the photograph and then rephotographed it, changing what should have been an original nude into a distorted photographic mixture, historian Susan Siegfried states that this technique of objectifying the woman disrupt our expectations about this appropriate nude. Animate and inanimate, tradition and avant garde, respect and ridicule, the elegant and the grotesque- all these are juxtaposed. [8] The simple brushstrokes turns the whole meaning of the image into something quite witty and somewhat comical, with a disconcerting past thought of the models armless figure. The title of the piece itself depicts the models profession as a prostitute, Le Violin dIngres, a French phrase meaning hobby. This in itself leads to plato's theory the connotations that although Ingres pastime was playing the on Video Game Addiction and its Side Effects, violin, playing with Kiki also was a hobby of Jimmy Santiago Baca´s "So Mexicans Are Taking from Essay, Man Ray.

The picture can be said to maintain a tension between objectification and appreciation of the female form. [9] Like Manets Olympia, Man Ray has also used objects to sexually objectify the female. Essay On Video Effects! This can be seen by Should of Performance Enhancing, the turban placed on the models head; however the background of the piece must be explored to understand the meaning of it. Historians Cathrin Klingsohr-Leroy and Uta Grosenick argue that we instinctively think of the importance of Essay Side, stringed instruments to Jimmy Baca´s Poem Are Taking the Cubists who incorporated [instruments] into and its, their complex still lifes. While in Analytic Cubism they were merely lifeless, sexless objects, Man Rays violin gives the photo an erotic aura. Both historians then carry on hunger meaning and suggest that this is emphasised by the reference to the classicist painter Jean Auguste Dominque Ingres and his famous Turkish Bath, where the central nude has her back to on Video Game Addiction the viewer. This is shown within Man Rays piece, as he has drawn her with such cold precision that she emits such sensuality. This shows the importance of the turban as it has been said to pick up on Ingres oriental ambience, but also an ironic comment on the cold eroticism of the Turkish bath scene. [10] In Man Rays words the instrument [the female] is simply ready and waiting for the soloist [the male], this furthermore objectifies her as a sexual object, waiting there only to pleasure a man. The process of Santiago Baca´s "So Mexicans Jobs from Essay, female objectification can also be shown through the works of Picasso and Manet through the Essay on Video Game, usage of hanging cloths and sheets. Of Michelangelo Film Ecstasy Essay! In Picassos Les Demoiselles, there is one woman who stands out from all the others, she has her elbow lifted and has pulled the sheet across her thigh.

Art historians have also said that the Essay and its Side Effects, bowl of fruit/phallus is the viewers erect penis and it points towards the woman of our choice, [11] showing that the female is Should Teammates of Performance Users Any Right to Their Medals? objectified as the Essay, artist intended the Jimmy Baca´s Are Taking Jobs Americans", viewer to be male. Although this woman appears to be standing, she has crossed her legs and her hands are behind her head, she has poised herself into a position we would associate her to be lying down, even though her body seems to be perpendicular to our line of sight. By lying down, the viewer can easily identify the Essay Game Addiction, woman as a prostitute, and further sexually objectifies her. Plato's Theory! Similarly, in Manets Olympia she is also presented in such a position that her profession is on Video Game and its Effects given away. The sheet is spread lazily across her bed instead of covering any of her naked body, and she is seen sitting elevated in an evocative manner, again, completely sexualising Olympia for the male viewers pleasure. Should Teammates Of Performance Medals?! As mentioned above, the positioning of the Essay on Video and its Side, female body and the nakedness of the females further objectifies them as sexual objects for mans pleasure and desire.

In Manets Olympia, she gazes directly at the spectator whilst her maid gazes intently at her, art historian Cherene Sherrard-Johnson states that Olympias gaze and i may cease the gaze of her maid disconcert viewers by Addiction and its, preventing easy identification and erotic pleasure, [12] meaning that viewers are somewhat embarrassed and almost aroused by the blatancy of Olympias profession, further objectifying her. Plato's Theory! The position of Olympias hand does not look as if she is attempting to cover any modesty but instead is Addiction Side poised over her vagina in self satisfying manner, this coupled with her gaze that was described as making her the viewer not the subject of the portrait [13] , depicts that she is a proud, powerful sexual icon, however she is objectified in the sense that although she may control her own sexual desire, she is ultimately reliant on mans desires to plato's theory fund her lavish lifestyle. Olympia is further objectified as an object of sexual desire through presenting her as a sexually appealing woman. This is done through the Essay Game and its, colour of hunger meaning, her skin tone, a stark paleness which was considered attractive within society at Essay Addiction Effects, the time of the painting. However, pale skin was also considered to symbolise wealth, so by making Olympia pale, Manet was challenging the acuity of the vocation and art within society at the time. By making Olympia sexually attractive this further objectifies her for hunger meaning, mans satisfaction only.

In Picassos portrait the figures also stare at the viewer, even the woman standing from a portrait angle, again similar to Essay Game Addiction Side Olympia, this gives the feeling that the viewer is the subject and desire of the i may, prostitutes gazes. The females have also been painted in different variations of cubism, and this has the effect of reinforcing their intense gaze as the viewer will often look at the womens styles individually before realising that the Essay on Video Game Effects, figures are naked. It is when the viewer looks at the naked females, that they are then objectified as the viewer will then make the plato's theory, connection of on Video and its Effects, them being sexual objects, and then will link their profession to prostitution. The copying and somewhat mocking of Baca´s Jobs, classical paintings which can be seen in Man Ray and Manets pieces further objectify women as sexual objects. Man rays Violin de Ingres is a mimic of his earlier painting The Valpincon Bather, painted in a neo-classical style. Charles Baudelaire described The Valpincon Bather as having deep voluptuousness, yet in many ways she is Essay on Video Addiction presented as essentially chaste, [14] he also argues that any contradiction to this statement such as the turn of her neck and i may cease to be the creases in her bed are counteracted by the cool tone in which her flesh is rendered as well as by elements such as the cool and elegant black-veined marble to the left of her. [15] It is Essay Addiction and its evident that Violin de Ingres is a direct opposite of this piece, as she is presented anything but chaste, sitting in a similar poise, Violin de Ingres is Jimmy "So Mexicans Are Taking Americans" Essay depicted as a violin, a fiddle, showing that she is played and fiddled with, demonstrating clearly that she is a prostitute, and this objectifies her, as she is again seen as only an object for mens sexual desire, unlike the bather who is depicted as a pure innocent woman with little sexual desire. Manets Olympia is also a mockery of Titians Venus of Urbino, as it is compositionally and stylistically similar. Manets Olympia is on Video Game stylistically similar to Titians Venus of Urbino as Olympia is surrounded by The True of Michelangelo in the and the Ecstasy, a thin dark outline, which was popular in Essay and its Effects, the renaissance period and often used by the artists.

The replacement of the black cat to Manets painting is also evident, and further helps to objectify Olympia. In Titians Venus, a dog is seen in the painting which symbolised fertility with no other sexual connotations unlike Manets Olympia. The composition of both females is also parallel, however what separates Venus from prostitution is when i may arguably the position of Essay Game Side, her hand compared to that of Olympias. Olympias, as mentioned earlier, gives away her profession as she covers her vagina in a dominating and sexually suggestive manner, she is not ashamed of the The True Worship in the film The Agony and the Ecstasy, viewer seeing her gentiles, but that she has the power to Essay and its Effects decide who sees her so intimately, where as Venus hand is delicately poised over her sex in a more innocent manner. By mocking and modifying iconic pieces of historical art that viewers would have been familiar with and would have compared to, this would identify the two women as prostitutes and when fears i may further emphasizes them as sexual objects meant only for male desire. In conclusion, through many stylistic and artistic methods the artists have achieved female objectification. These methods include the use of objects that surround or embellish the subject(s) within the painting, along with their symbolism and implications that help the on Video and its, viewer to identify the women as prostitutes and objects of sexual desire. By coupling the use of objects with sexual connotations, the plato's theory, women are sexually objectified through nakedness to Addiction and its draw in the viewer who becomes aware that he is looking at a woman with sexual desire and motive.

The women are then further objectified by mocking classical art, in which the viewer can clearly connect and identify the Jimmy Santiago "So Mexicans Are Taking from, women as prostitutes and sexually promiscuous whilst ridiculing traditional art. With all these methods and techniques lacing each piece, Manet, Picasso and Man Ray have successfully accomplished female objectification. Word Count: 2,347. Harrison, Charles. Art in theory: 1900 - 1990 ; an anthology of changing ideas . Reprinted. ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 2009. Hess, Thomas B., and Linda Nochlin. Woman as sex object; studies in Essay on Video Addiction Effects, erotic art, 1730-1970. . London: Allen Lane, 1972. Johnson, Cherene.

Portraits of the new Negro woman . New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2007. Leroy, Cathrin, and vs plains bison Uta Grosenick. Surrealism . Koln: Taschen, 2004. Miller, Andrew H., and James Eli Adams. Sexualities in Essay Game and its Side, Victorian Britain . Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1996. Rosenblum, Robert.

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres . New York: H.N. Abrams, 1967. Siegfried, Susan L.. Fingering Ingres . Oxford: Blackwell, 2001. Le Violon d'Ingres (Ingres's Violin) (Getty Museum) . The Getty . N.p., n.d.

Web. 21 Nov. Worship The Agony And The Essay! 2010. Essay On Video And Its Effects! Andersen, Wayne V.. Picasso's brothel: les demoiselles d'Avignon . New York: Other Press, 2002. Print. Eduardo Manet's Olympia.

Olympia . N.p., n.d. Web. Hunger Meaning! 21 Nov. 2010.'s-Olympia:-Comfortable-in-Her-Own-Skin. Female Objectification, A Collection of on Video Game Addiction and its Side, Images | p.a.p.-blog | human rights etc.. p.a.p.-blog | human rights etc. | human rights from the perspective of politics, art and philosophy (hence p.a.p.), but also law, economics statistics . N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2010. Les Demoiselles.

Smart History . N.p., n.d. The True In The Film Ecstasy! Web. 21 Nov. 2010. The Bather, known as the ValpinAon Bather Jean Auguste Dominique INGRES (Montauban, 1780-Paris, 1867) Paintings | Louvre Museum. Essay Game And Its Side! Site officiel du musAe du Louvre . N.p., n.d. Enhancing Drugs Users To Their! Web. 21 Nov. 2010.

The Cat in Art: Symbol of Idleness, Lust, and Evil. Online Magazine and Writers' Network . Essay On Video Addiction Effects! N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. [1] Female objectification,, [accessed 21/11/10] [2] Thomas B. Hess, Linda Nochlin, Woman as sex object: studies in erotic art, 1730-1970, (Allen Lane, London 1972) p.230. [3] Ander H. Miller, James Eli Adams, Sexualities in Victorian Britain, (Indiana, Indiana University Press, 1996), p.133. [4] Eduardo Manet's Olympia: Comfortable in Her Own Skin,'s-Olympia:-Comfortable-in-Her-Own-Skin, [accessed 22/11/10] [5] The Cat in Art: Symbol of Idleness, Lust and that i may Evil, , [accessed 22/11/10] [6] Charles Harrison, Art in theory, 1900 - 2000: an anthology of changing ideas, (Oxford, Blackwell, 2009), p.209.

[7] Wayne Andersen, Picasso's brothel: les demoiselles d'Avignon, (Other Press, New York, 2002), p. 97. [8] Susan L. Siegfried, Fingering Ingres, (Oxford, Blackwell 2001), p. 122. [9] The J. Addiction Side! Paul Getty Museum,, [accessed 20/11/2010] [10] Cathrin Klingsohr-Leroy, Uta Grosenick, Surrealism, (Ko#776;ln, Taschen 2004), p.90. [11] Art of a global conflict,, [accessed 20/11/10] [12] Cherene Sherrard-Johnson, Portraits of the bison vs plains, new Negro woman, (Rutgers University Press, New Jersey, 2007), p.34. [14] Louvre,, [accessed 21/11/10] [15] Robert Rosenblum, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres , (H.N. Abrams, New York 1967), p.66. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Fine Art, Design Studies, Art History, Crafts section.

Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per Essay Game Addiction Effects month. Related University Degree Creative Arts and Design Skills and Jimmy Santiago Baca´s Poem "So Mexicans Are Taking from Americans" Essay Knowledge Essays. Compare and Contrast two choreographers works and choreographic process. Word count: 4256. Compare and contrast any two female free standing sculptures with any two male free . Word count: 1548.

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Art and reason in Jimmy Santiago Baca´s Are Taking from Americans", renaissance Italy. The monumental drawing almost summarises the renaissance with its contemporary portraits of Leonardo and Essay Game Addiction and its Michealangelo to depict ancient philosophers. Thus, the stanza demonstrates the amalgamation of Classical and Renaissance cultures. However, it was not long before this union was broken with a darker cloud that descended across Europe towards the. Martin Jay contrasts Renaissance and Baroque approaches to visuality in his article 'Scopic regimes . This suitable definition comprises common elements of other definitions. One of the strongest themes of the hunger meaning, Baroque period was a return to spirituality.

A potential reason for the emergence of the spectacular Baroque period according to Calabrese (1992) is that it was a period during which the Catholic Church attempted to steer culture back towards tradition and spirituality. Compare and Contrast two choreographers works and Essay Game Addiction Side choreographic process. Choreography is a language. It's like the alphabet and you don't necessarily have to spell words you know. the Jimmy Santiago Baca´s Poem "So Mexicans Jobs Americans" Essay, value of Essay on Video Game Addiction and its Side Effects, language is determined by wood bison bison, the context in Essay on Video Game Effects, which it appears. The most important thing is how you speak with language, not what you say.' Antonin Artaud - Mad Man or Genius?

The aim of The Theatre of Cruelty was to disturb the audience and reveal the true forces of nature. To achieve this objective he emphasised the non-verbal aspects of theatre such as colour, sound, and movement and Worship of Michelangelo in the The Agony and the stressed the Essay Addiction and its, importance of violence as a theatrical devise. Explain the nature of early-modern human geography in the light of Samuel Johnson 's . The plagiarising Geographer would then write a summary, the most popular form being a Grammar, which described various parts of the globes in sections by continent or country. A famous example of this would be the hunger meaning, clergyman William Guthrie's 'A New Geographical, Historical, and on Video and its Side Effects Commercial Grammar, And Present State of. Pop Art. I decided to Worship of Michelangelo The Agony Ecstasy cover the topics Pop Art in Great Britain . Martin's School of Art, also in London. Blake and Smith belonged to the second generation of Essay on Video Game Addiction, British pop art. Blake's work inclined strongly towards figurative realism, while Smith tended towards pronounced abstraction. While the first phase of British pop art had focused on performed media imagery, the impulses for its. Better Day Coming; Blacks and Teammates of Performance Enhancing Drugs Have inequality 1890 to 2000. that its roots were in the Northern States and was ill trusted by black southerners.

Fairclough attributes the race riot of 1906, which took place in Atlanta, as an important, mark in the failure of the Niagara movement as it demoralized the on Video Addiction and its Side, Atlanta leadership and plato's theory gave Washington a platform on which to reassert his influence in the black community. Compare and contrast any two female free standing sculptures with any two male free . The Auxerre Maiden has both feet together and has on irregular shaped hand on her chest and the other down by her side. Whereas the Athenian Akropolis Kore would have had her hand outstretched and and its Effects would have been offering something in her outstretched palm. Should Enhancing Drugs Users Any Right Medals?! Her other hand clasping the Essay on Video Addiction Side Effects, drapery. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and bison feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd.

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How to Write a Reading Response Essay with Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Summarizes what you read. Gives your reaction to on Video Game and its Side, the text. Your reaction will be one or more of the i may to be following: Agreement/disagreement with the ideas in the text.

Reaction to how the ideas in the text relate to your own experience. Reaction to how ideas in the text relate to other things you've read. Your analysis of the author and audience. Essay On Video Addiction Side! Your evaluation of how this text tries to convince the reader and bison bison, whether it is effective. Your introduction will be 1-3 paragraphs.

For this essay, because you want to give both information about the subject and also briefly summarize the article you are responding to, you probably need at least two paragraphs. In all introductions, you want to: Get the readers attention. Describe your subject. Give your thesis. For a responsive reading essay, you also need to: Mention the author and title of the Game and its Side Effects article you are discussing. Give a brief summary of the wood vs plains article or the part of the article that you are responding to. Paragraph One . Get the readers attention by describing the Essay Game Side subject in one of the following ways: Use a startling statistic. Plato's Theory! Cite an interesting fact.

Pose an Essay on Video and its Effects, appropriate quotation. Tell an Jimmy Are Taking Essay, anecdote. Describe a scenario. Essay On Video Addiction! Write a conversation. Tell a story. Put forth a question your essay will answer. Give an example.

Explain general information about the topic. Using a Frame for Your Introduction and Conclusion. One of my favorite techniques is to use a frame story or conversation for the opening and the conclusion. Plato's Theory! The way this works is that you tell half of a story or conversation in the introduction and then tell the rest of the story in the conclusion. Or you could open with a dilemma or problem and then close with a solution. Another approach is to Essay Game Addiction and its Effects, retell the same story in Should Teammates of Performance Drugs Have to Their, the conclusion with a different (usually better) ending. Examples: In an Essay on Video Side, essay about cell phone use in cars, you could open with a scenario showing a person getting a call while driving and bison vs plains, thinking about what to do. In the conclusion, you could tell the end of the scenariomaybe the driver pulls over to Addiction Effects, take the call or decides to let voicemail take it. In an essay about wood bison bison, dealing with a family member with Alzheimers, you could open with a conversation between family members trying to figure out what to do and Effects, conclude with a conversation between the same people after they have decided to place that person in a nursing home.

In an essay about oil drilling in hunger meaning, the Gulf, you could open by Game and its Side Effects describing vividly the oil-soaked coastline and i may to be, the dying wildlife. Game Addiction Effects! You could conclude with what that coastline looks like now. On any topic which you have personal experience, you can open with part of your story, and then conclude with the ending of your story. How to Become a Republican. My analysis of a Harvard study that reported that watching 4th of July parades makes people vote Republican. Reading Response Example Paper: A reader response about Chris Adrian's article Under My Skin from the New York Times. Introduction and Conclusion Ideas. Paragraph 2 : After your introduction, transition by explaining what the author of the article you have written has to say about this topic. Briefly explain the main points of the when fears i may cease to be article that you want to Essay on Video Game Addiction and its, talk about.

Then you will give your thesis. Example: According to Mary Johnson in Cell Phones are Dangerous, we should not use our phones while driving and should educate others not to use them either. Johnson gives statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk. Should Teammates Enhancing Drugs Any Right To Their! Moreover, she points out the increasing number of accidents caused by Essay on Video and its Side Effects cell phone use. Her conclusion is that we need to personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to educate our friends and family to give up cell phones while driving, too.

Then add a thesis statement like one of the following examples: (Agree) I agree with Johnson because I have observed many people driving dangerously while talking on cell phones and bison vs plains, have even been in Essay on Video and its Side Effects, an accident myself while talking on the phone. (Disagree ) I disagree with Johnson because I dont think that using a cell phone is any different from eating in a car or talking with other passengers. (Reflect on authors experience ) I believe Johnson has come to plato's theory, her conclusions because of her own traumatic experiences while using a cell phone while driving. (Optional: you could add an Essay, extension, like but personal experiences are not a good basis for public policy.) (Expand on wood bison vs plains, an assertion made in Essay Game Addiction, the essay ) I agree with Johnsons assertion that cell phones are dangerous, but Id go even further than she does because I think we cannot control this problem by merely educating the public. Plato's Theory! We need to have laws prohibiting the use of cell phones while driving. Here are six different ways to respond to an essay:

You can agree with the Essay Addiction article and explain three or more reasons why you agree. You can disagree with the article and explain three or more reasons why. You can agree with some parts of the article and plato's theory, disagree with other parts and explain why. On Video Game Side! You can analyze the Should Teammates Enhancing to Their rhetorical situation (occasion, purpose, audience, and Game Addiction, context) of this article and explain why the authors personal experience causes them to The True of Michelangelo film Ecstasy, write this piece. You can take one part of the essay, agreeing or disagreeing with it, and expand on on Video Game Addiction and its Effects, that idea, giving reasons for your reader to agree with you. You can explain your reaction to the article and then analyze how the writers style, tone, word choice, and examples made you feel that way. Remember that all essays have three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. There are many ways to write a good essay, but I will give you a general guide to follow which will help you to organize your ideas. Here you will argue your thesis and give support for vs plains, your ideas from your personal experience and your own thinking and reading. You can also use evidence from the article you read but dont just repeat the ideas in the article. The body of your paper should have three or more paragraphs.

Each paragraph should have a topic sentence which communicates one response idea you have about the paper such as, I agree with Jones that _________ or My personal experience makes me relate to _____ because _______. Essay On Video And Its Side Effects! The rest of the paragraph should give details to Jimmy Baca´s Poem Are Taking from Essay, back up that point. You can use examples from the reading, your own life, something else you have read, or common experiences we all have. You can also use reasoning to prove your points. Explain why you think this way. Don't forget to use author tags when you are talking about something in the story. The best essays do refer back to the text and explain why and how the reader's response relates to Essay on Video Effects, the article.

The first time you talk about the article, you should give the full name of the author and the title of the Should of Performance Drugs Users Any Right article in parenthesis: John Jones in his article, Taking Back Our Lives, states _________.. After that, you need to always tell when you are paraphrasing the and its Side Effects article instead of vs plains bison, giving your own view. On Video Addiction And Its! Use author tags to Jimmy Baca´s Poem "So Mexicans Jobs from, show you are talking about something in the article and not your own ideas. Author tags use the Essay Game and its Effects last name of the author and a verb. Try these variations: Differentiating Your Voice from the Author's: Instead of Jones says, you can use: Contrary to what you may have learned in previous writing classes, you should not repeat or summarize your arguments in the conclusion. The True Worship And The Essay! That is sometimes appropriate for in-class essays when you are not sure youve been clear about your main points, but it is Essay Addiction and its not appropriate for college writing. Instead, you need to hunger meaning, actually conclude your arguments. You can often use the same type of technique that you use in Essay on Video and its Side Effects, an introduction.

You can also: call attention to Users to Their Medals?, larger issues call for a change in action or attitude conclude with a vivid image appeal to the reader to agree with you or link back to your introduction by finishing the story/scenario, revising it, or explaining how it proves your point. This is Essay on Video a sample reading response essay to an article titled Cell Phones are Dangerous by Santiago Baca´s Poem Are Taking from Essay Mary Johnson, agreeing with the on Video Addiction article and Teammates Drugs Users Have Medals?, extending one of the ideas. Paragraph 1 : Dramatic re-telling of a personal story of picking up my cell phone and then realizing that I am going to crash into another car. Essay On Video Side! Stop the story right before the crash. Paragraph 2 : Like most people, I thought I was a good enough driver to Worship in the film Essay, handle using a cell phone while driving.

I found out on Video and its Side I was wrong. It turns out Im not unusual. In her article Cell Phones are Dangerous, Mary Johnson argues that as statistics of cell phone use while driving goes up, so do accidents. According to Johnson, we should not use our phones while driving and should educate others not to use them either. Johnson cites statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk.

Moreover, she points out the increasing number of accidents caused by plato's theory cell phone use. Her conclusion is that we need to personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to educate our friends and Essay Side Effects, family to give up using cell phones while driving too. I agree with Jones that cell phones are dangerous and that we should personally choose to not use one while driving; however, Id go further than Jones by wood bison adding that we need to Addiction Side Effects, have laws that prohibit anyone from using cell phones in cars. Each of these statements would be the topic sentence of when fears that i may cease to be, one of the body paragraphs. For the first one, I also give examples of the Essay on Video Addiction and its Effects type of arguments and support I would use to write that paragraph and hunger meaning, prove my point. 1. Laws make people realize that cell phone driving is dangerous. (Below is an example of some support I could use to Essay on Video, back up this ideayou can use ideas from the hunger meaning article but do not repeat the article.) support with an anecdote of friends or family thinking a call is more important than driving use statistics from article argue some people will be convinced by being educated, but not everyone use example of seatbelt laws saving lives argue that using a cell phone endangers others and not just yourself. 2. New technology requires changes in on Video Game Addiction and its Side, public policy.

3. People in in the and the, my generation feel obligated to take a call, but if it is illegal to call while driving, they wont feel that pressure. 4. On Video Game! Using hands-free headsets wont work because it is the call which is i have fears that i may to be distracting, not holding the phone. 5. This law will save a lot of lives. I would return to Game and its, my personal story and pick it up where I left off. I do crash and there is a lot of damage to my car, but no one is hurt. I can explain my great relief that my cell phone use did not end more tragically, and my personal decision to put my cell phone where I cant reach it while driving. End with an appeal to the reader to vs plains, do the same, but to also support legislation to on Video and its Side, prohibit cell phone use while driving. Additional Information for The True Worship of Michelangelo film and the Ecstasy, Essay on Game Addiction and its, Cell Phone Use While Driving. You formulate an evaluation any time you answer someones question, What did you think of that book (article, movie, class, or news report)? Responding personally to an article is plato's theory usually the start of on Video and its Effects, any analysis of wood vs plains, writing, so it is a good first paper type to write.

However, unlike a review or evaluation paper, your purpose in a response paper is not to tell someone else whether or not they should read this article. Instead, your purpose is to explain your reaction and to give reasons (this will be the body of your paper) why you reacted that way. Doing an evaluation paper would take the reading response a step further and is probably one of the papers you will do next in your course. How long does your instructor give you to on Video and its Effects, write each essay? How long does your English Instructor usually take to grade your essays? How to Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers.

by Virginia Kearney 8. by Virginia Kearney 4. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5.

100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Coming into plato's theory my assignment, I was very nervous. I've never written a reader-response paper.

The information I found on Game Effects, your site gives me the confidence to move forward! Thanks so much! Carmel Therese C. Crauz 6 weeks ago. Hi Ms. Virginia, thanks a lot for Jimmy Santiago Are Taking, a very helpful article. Essay On Video And Its Side! Been searching for a while on how to write a synopsis on our assignment. THANK YOU SOOOO MUCH!

GOD BLESS YOU! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Maria, I'm so glad that you found this article helpful to you. The Agony And The! Writing responses to things you read is such a fundamental part of Essay on Video Side Effects, many college tasks that mastering this ability makes you a much better student overall. Maria I Reyes 23 months ago. Ms. Lynne thank you so much. This was extremely helpful. I like the fact that you added examples for a better understanding.

I also added it as a favorite so that I can refer to it as often as possible. Thanks again! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. ChocoMoco--all papers need to have a thesis sentence because a thesis sentence is the main idea of the paper. However, not all thesis sentences are roadmap ones which tell everything you will talk about.

A thesis sentence for a Reading Response paper will say the main response you have to the what you've read. Here is a Reading Response paper with examples about a thesis: For a responsive paper is it necessary to have a thesis sentence? Thank you this saved life! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from Baca´s Poem Jobs Americans" United States. Hi Lex--I have several other sample papers that you can see if you just search on HubPages for Reading Response sample essays. I really like how you give your example , it sure help me a lot . Please add more to help other people that need it! Kristi Tipps-Deutsch 3 years ago from Colorado Springs. I enjoyed this hub very much. It's so helpful to Side, have sample papers that students can try to recreate with their own content.

I will happily rob you of wood vs plains bison, this fabulous step by step tutorial. Thank you for taking such time and effort to make it so accessible. Thank you it was so helpful I had two videos and the Dr. asked us to write responds I did what have said thank you. Thank you for your response examples. i was awesome i got lots of idea . On Video And Its Side! thanks. When Fears I May Cease To Be! : ) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from on Video Game Addiction Effects United States. Glad that my Hub reassured you reniesaenz. I have been so happy to The True Worship of Michelangelo in the Ecstasy, find that many students both in my class and Essay and its Side, out have been able to write better and wood bison vs plains, faster when given clear instructions. To be honest I was a little nervous going into your class. After reading this hubpage I'm actually not as nervous because I know that following your hubpages will give me the on Video Addiction and its Effects help I need to right the bison vs plains bison essay's this semester. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.

Thanks so much for Essay on Video Side, stopping by! Thanks! it is really helpful 5 years ago. Thanks! It is Should Drugs Medals? really helpful. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much peytons for letting me know that this has helped you. I can't believe how many people are reading this hub, which I originallly put up mostly for my own students to use. Finally, I Googled this topic and on Video Game Side, realized that there isn't much on the web explaining how to write reading responses, even though that is a very common essay topic in bison bison, a lot of disciplines.

In fact, I've especially noticed that my ESL students were required to do these projects in their classes. Thanks for your hub, and I have learned a lot about the skills of writing a reading reponse. You recommended ways of introduction are exceptionally engaging and desirable. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from Essay on Video Addiction and its Effects United States. Hi--the two samples in the blue block are reading response essays my students have done. Good luck on your assignment! Check out some of Jimmy Baca´s Are Taking Jobs from Essay, my other hubs for other writing help. Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico.

Thanks for taking the time to answer my question. I have also been thinking about writing book reviews, this hub might help me on that. Cheers! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks for your comments Claudia.

I have written reading response hubs on Chinese books for Essay Game Addiction, kids and i have that cease, early readers. Game! My Stone Age hub is really a reading response too. Actually, I have a ton of hubs planned of this type but I haven't gotten to them yet. Reading Response is really a lot like a book review, and hunger meaning, so that is always fun! Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico. I used to write reading response essays for a literature course I engaged in during my college years. Essay On Video Game Addiction And Its Side Effects! I enjoy writing and analyzing my response to the things I read. It was quite fun in Should Teammates Enhancing Users Any Right to Their, those days because the professor obviously chose books that where especially thought provoking and that made it much more interesting and easy too. Essay Game Addiction And Its! Do you write many reading response hub-essays?

Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks Carol3san--I've been very surprised at the number of people who have looked at my writing hubs and I'm always grateful for positive feedback. Thanks for stopping by! Carolyn Sands 5 years ago from Hollywood Florida. Thanks for Jimmy "So Mexicans Are Taking Americans" Essay, the hub. On Video Game Addiction And Its! Great info. I voted you up.

Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks somethingblue! I appreciate your comment and the time you've taken to respond at length. Although my hubs on writing instruction don't always have a lot of comments, they have gotten more views than I expected. I know that many writing instructors don't have a lot of plato's theory, previous experience or instruction in teaching writing before they are put in a class. Sometimes the Game Addiction books they use aren't particularly helpful at explaining the process. I try to take the of Michelangelo in the film and the Ecstasy steps of Essay on Video Game and its, writing these essays and break them down so they are easier. Thanks again!

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