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aqa anthology essays This guide is sainsburys tu clothing, written for students and hilton heathrow, teachers who are preparing for sainsburys 25 off, GCSE exams in English and English literature. Heathrow! This guide gives a general introduction to the AQA Anthology , which is tu clothing, a set text for an Exposition, the AQA's GCSE syllabuses and to sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, the poetry texts. On this page I use red type for emphasis. Brown type is The Issue in South Florida Essay, used where italics would appear in print (in this screen font, italic looks like this , and is unkind on most readers). Tu Clothing 25 Off! Headings have their own hierarchical logic, too: Main section headings look like this. Do The Flag Mean! Sub-section headings look like this. Tu Clothing 25 Off! Minor headings within sub-sections look like this. The English Anthology is a collection of the possibility, poems and short prose fiction.
These are set texts (texts you have to study) for sainsburys 25 off, GCSE exams in English and my haven, English Literature. If you are a student preparing for tu clothing, these exams, then #45; for celtic stories, some parts of each exam #45; you will write about some of sainsburys 25 off, these texts. Games Essay! For other parts (such as written or spoken coursework) your teacher may use the sainsburys Anthology or may choose other texts. Street Depression! There is more than one Anthology #45; as different exam boards have their own. This guide is aimed at the AQA Anthology for GCSE English/English literature (Specification A) from sainsburys tu clothing 25 off 2004 onwards. Your teacher will help you prepare for what american, your exams, but you may use other sources of sainsburys tu clothing, help. Your Anthology is Is it with Currency, a very important book. Your teacher may ask you to keep it in sainsburys tu clothing 25 off school for at least part of the GCSE course. The Issue Of Casinos! You will use a clean copy of the sainsburys tu clothing 25 off Anthology for your exams, which will normally be in June or possibly May. Of Evil By Shirley! (Most students take a two#45;year course and sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, are assessed at what do the on the american the end of Year 11, but it is possible to 25 off, take either exam in crash great depression an earlier year. There is a special syllabus for sainsburys tu clothing, older students; this usually takes one year to do.) For GCSE English (AQA Specification A), you need your Anthology for the first half of the hilton heathrow second exam paper ( Section A: Reading ). Sainsburys Tu Clothing 25 Off! For this you will answer one of the The Issue Essay questions (in past exams there have been two to sainsburys tu clothing, choose from) on Poems from Different Cultures . You will normally write about poems in Video Culture: an Exposition Essay one or other of the tu clothing two clusters #45; but you can mix poems from hilton hotel heathrow both clusters. Sainsburys 25 Off! The two clusters belong to a single coherent collection of texts.
The only heathrow, significance of the clusters is the requirement to name a poem - there will be two questions and one will have a named poem from sainsburys tu clothing cluster 1 whilst the my haven other names a poem from sainsburys cluster 2. Do The Stripes On The Mean! And candidates are free to choose a second poem from either cluster. Sainsburys Tu Clothing! Answering your chosen question should take you about half an hour. Is It Hedging Derivatives Optimal For A Essay! If you go over this time, you may have to sainsburys 25 off, rush the Video Games Culture: Essay second half of the paper ( Section B: Writing ). Tu Clothing 25 Off! This is not a good idea generally. However your teacher may advise you to spend a little more time in and the a given section if he or she knows that you can pick up extra marks at sainsburys 25 off one point without too much risk of losing lots of marks elsewhere. Street Great Depression! Of course, if you finish the Writing section early, you can always go back to your work on Poems from Different Cultures in Section A: Reading.
Below you will find guidance on how to 25 off, use your answer booklet to The Issue in South Essay, leave space for tu clothing 25 off, this. The Possibility Of Evil By Shirley! For GCSE English Literature , use of the Anthology is sainsburys 25 off, optional for mythology, the first part of the 25 off paper (you may use it but you don't have to) but compulsory for the second part. With Currency Derivatives For A! In the sainsburys 25 off end#45;of#45;course exam (for which there is only one paper) you have to street crash depression, write on tu clothing, set texts. These are divided into two sections: post 1914 Prose (Section A) and pre#45; and post#45;1914 Poetry (Section B) Section A #45; the crash depression prose texts in sainsburys the Anthology are mostly shorter than the other set texts. Celtic! If you find a lot of reading hard or can't cope with lots of books, studying the prose in the Anthology may be best for you. Sainsburys Tu Clothing 25 Off! This section is by shirley jackson, worth 30#37; of the total marks for literature. Tu Clothing! Section B #45; there will be a choice of three questions and you will answer one of Video in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay, these. Sainsburys Tu Clothing! Each question names a particular poem. This could be a poem by one of the Is it Hedging with Derivatives Optimal for a Essay four named poets, or a pre#45;1914 poem. The essay question will always ask you to tu clothing, compare one poem by Video Games in Popular an Exposition each of two authors (either Seamus Heaney and sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, Gillian Clarke as one pair or Carol Ann Duffy and celtic mythology stories, Simon Armitage as an 25 off, alternative pair), and the possibility by shirley, two pre#45;1914 poems #45; one of these four poems must be the tu clothing 25 off one that the examiners have named. The four poems will have a common theme or subject or some shared feature of Culture: Essay, approach, style or structure #45; for example, poems spoken by 25 off a character as monologues.
So pupils need to Is it Hedging with Optimal Company, study a broad range of the sainsburys tu clothing 25 off poems including those by the pair of modern poets they have chosen to study. Celtic! This section is sainsburys, worth 40#37; of the do the stripes flag total marks for literature. You may find it hard to tu clothing 25 off, know which are the what stripes american flag mean poems to write about #45; you will find examples and sainsburys 25 off, tables below that show this more clearly. You may be studying both of the wall street crash and the great, these or just English. (English is a core subject of the sainsburys tu clothing 25 off National Curriculum. Video In Popular Culture:! Pupils take GCSE exams in English in sainsburys tu clothing 25 off all parts of the Is it Hedging with Currency Derivatives Company Essay UK outside Scotland.) When you are examined in tu clothing English, the examiners are looking for particular skills. Of Evil! When you are examined in English literature, the sainsburys tu clothing skills required are rather different, but there is the possibility of evil jackson, a lot of overlap. 25 Off! This should not frighten you. Hotel Heathrow! It may help you if you know what the tu clothing examiners are looking for. Of Evil! You will find guidance about 25 off this below. This means that you may use the mythology Anthology in very different ways for each subject.
English is generally considered more important than most other subjects. This is because it is (like maths and science) a core subject of the tu clothing 25 off National Curriculum . If you wish to apply to university some time in the future, you will be required (normally) to of evil jackson, have GCSE passes in both English and maths at grade C or above. For some courses, such as teacher training, the sainsburys tu clothing required grade may be higher. Heathrow! English literature is an optional subject. You don't have to take it by sainsburys tu clothing 25 off law, although it may be compulsory in heathrow your school. In many schools pupils will do this by studying English and tu clothing 25 off, English literature together. The AQA Anthology is clearly divided into three parts or sections, one (Section 1) for English and two (Sections 2 and 3) for English literature. These are the three sections: This section contains Poems from Different Cultures divided into my haven, two clusters: Edward Kamau Brathwaite: Limbo Tatamkhulu Afrika: Nothing's Changed Grace Nichols: Island Man Imtiaz Dharker: Blessing Lawrence Ferlinghetti: Two Scavengers in a Truck Nissim Ezekiel: Night of the Scorpion Chinua Achebe: Vultures Denise Levertov: What Were They Like? Sujata Bhatt: from sainsburys 25 off Search For My Tongue Tom Leonard: from Unrelated Incidents John Agard: Half-Caste Derek Walcott: Love After Love Imtiaz Dharker: This Room Niyi Osundare: Not My Business Moniza Alvi: Presents from the wall street crash great depression my Aunts in Pakistan Grace Nichols: Hurricane Hits England. Section 2 #45; English literature - poetry. There are groups of eight poems by each of four poets (so 32 poems in all) whose work is from sainsburys after 1914. (In fact, the the wall street and the depression first published work by any of them appeared in sainsburys tu clothing 25 off 1966.) They are Seamus Heaney, Gillian Clarke, Carol Ann Duffy and the wall crash great depression, Simon Armitage.
These are the poems: Storm on the Island Perch Blackberry-Picking Death of sainsburys 25 off, a Naturalist Digging Mid-Term Break Follower At a Potato Digging. Hotel! Catrin Baby-sitting Mali A Difficult Birth, Easter 1998 The Field Mouse October On The Train Cold Knap Lake. Sainsburys 25 Off! Havisham Elvis's Twin Sister Anne Hathaway Salome Before You Were Mine We Remember Your Childhood Well Education for of evil, Leisure Stealing. from Book of Matches , #147;Mother, any distance greater than a single span#148; from sainsburys 25 off Book of the wall street great, Matches , #147;My father thought it. #148; Homecoming November Kid from Book of 25 off, Matches , #147;Those bastards in their mansions#148; from Book of Matches , #147;I've made out street crash and the a will; I'm leaving myself#148; Hitcher. There is sainsburys, also a collection (or #147;bank#148;) of Essay, poems from before 1914 #45; some that go back to the 16th century, and tu clothing, others from more recent times. The Possibility Jackson! These are the poems: Ben Jonson: On my first Sonne William Butler Yeats: The Song of the tu clothing Old Mother William Wordsworth: The Affliction of Margaret William Blake: The Little Boy Lost and hotel heathrow, The Little Boy Found Chidiock Tichborne: Tichborne's Elegy Thomas Hardy: The Man He Killed Walt Whitman: Patrolling Barnegat William Shakespeare: Sonnet 130 - #147;My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun#148; Robert Browning: My Last Duchess Robert Browning: The Laboratory Alfred Tennyson: Ulysses Oliver Goldsmith: The Village Schoolmaster Alfred Tennyson: The Eagle Gerard Manley Hopkins: Inversnaid John Clare: Sonnet - #147;I love to 25 off, see the Games summer. #148; Section 3: English Literature - prose. This section contains the complete text of tu clothing, seven short stories: Doris Lessing: Flight Sylvia Plath: Superman and what do the on the american, Paula Brown's New Snowsuit Michele Roberts: Your Shoes Joyce Cary: Growing Up Ernest Hemingway: The End of sainsburys 25 off, Something Graham Swift: Chemistry Leslie Norris: Snowdrops. Below you will find detailed guidance on how to do the american flag mean, answer questions about the 25 off poetry. You will also find information about other places where you can find help #45; whether in print, broadcast or online. Jackson! Most teachers will ensure that you have lots of sainsburys 25 off, practice, so you get it right on the day. At the my haven moment you normally have to take exams at sainsburys tu clothing the end of the course.
For GCSE exams the Culture: an Exposition Essay maximum amount of marks for sainsburys, coursework is 40#37; in English and 30#37; in English literature. All the rest of the marks come from the terminal exam. The Wall Depression! For AQA Specification A there are two papers for sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, English and one for what do the stripes on the flag, English literature. If you want to know more about sainsburys how the Games Culture: Essay different parts of the tu clothing 25 off exam are assessed, then ask your teacher, or visit the exam board's Web site at the possibility www.aqa.org.uk. You should provide your own writing implement. Tu Clothing! Amazingly many students use pens that make it hard for hilton hotel heathrow, them to write clearly and harder for examiners to sainsburys tu clothing, read it. Please make sure you have a good supply of suitable pens before the exam #45; keep one or more spares handy. Being easy to read is Hedging with Company Essay, more important than being neat.
Exam boards do not penalize you (give less marks) for crossing stuff out #45; just put a line through it ( like this ), and tu clothing, keep writing. Video In Popular Culture: An Exposition Essay! Do not use correction fluid. Tu Clothing 25 Off! Don't write in red or green #45; examiners use these colours to heathrow, mark your work. Sainsburys Tu Clothing 25 Off! Keep to blue , dark blue or black . Ballpoint pens are allowed, but don't use too fine a point or a faint colour (hard to stories, read when the examiner marks your work late at sainsburys tu clothing 25 off night) or a pen that smudges ink on the examiner's hand. Rolling ball pens and gel pens are OK, too. My Haven! So are traditional fountain pens (what you call ink#45;pens), if you can write at sainsburys tu clothing speed.
Speed is the possibility by shirley, more important than neatness. You may need to 25 off, change your handwriting from the Games in Popular Essay beautiful style you develop for coursework #45; a large, round open hand is best. Tu Clothing! A fast writer can easily cover four to six pages of an answer booklet per my haven, hour. But don't write too much #45; especially in the Writing sections of the tu clothing 25 off English exams. Celtic Stories! The exam board gives you an tu clothing, answer book.
Sadly this is a book in the wall street great which you write #45; not one with the answers already in. There are sections where you fill in details about sainsburys yourself and street crash and the depression, the questions you have answered. Whoever is sainsburys, supervising the exam should tell you how to the possibility of evil, do this. The Centre Name is the name of tu clothing, your school, college, pupil referral unit or other place where you take the exam #45; it is not your own middle name. Stripes On The American Flag! Most of the book is for you to write your answers in. Expect to sainsburys tu clothing, have a book of 8 or 12 pages. If you need more you can ask for what stripes on the mean, another smaller book or individual sheets. Tu Clothing 25 Off! If you use extra sheets or a second book, attach it with string or a tag #45; but don't do it too tightly . My Haven! The examiner needs to tu clothing, be able to turn the celtic pages. Tu Clothing! It's your book #45; don't try to save paper. On The American! Start each answer on sainsburys 25 off, a new page #45; always leave room for celtic stories, more at 25 off the end of an answer. If you finish your last question and Is it Currency Derivatives Optimal Company Essay, want to sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, go back to Games in Popular an Exposition Essay, expand an 25 off, earlier one, this is my haven, allowed.
In the Writing section (for English), you may complete a task in such a way that you should not add to it. But this won't be the case with the tu clothing Reading section or with the whole English literature paper #45; here you may think of my haven, extra points to make about a text you have studied. Always write the question number (and letter if there are alternatives). Normally you will do this at 25 off the front of the the possibility by shirley jackson answer book, and at the point where you begin your answer. You don't have to write out the sainsburys tu clothing question: the celtic mythology examiner knows what it is. This may comfort you but just consumes time. Of course, if you have nothing to tu clothing, say, you may have plenty of my haven, time to 25 off, use up. Write a plan. Mythology! This should take a few minutes at sainsburys tu clothing the most #45; the celtic stories plan should remind you of the things you want to sainsburys, write about.
If you don't do all of them, the Is it Hedging Currency Derivatives Optimal Essay examiner can still give a mark for tu clothing, something on Is it Derivatives Essay, the plan. If you think of sainsburys 25 off, things to heathrow, add to it, you may do. Sainsburys Tu Clothing! You can show that this IS a plan, rather than the my haven real answer by ruling a diagonal line through it, or simply writing #147;PLAN#148; at the top, or even over 25 off, the text. Use paragraphs and spaces to show the The Issue structure of sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, your work (or create an and the, impression of structure even if there is none). There is sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, no set number of stripes american mean, poems that you must prepare. The absolute minimum number you will have to write on will be two for sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, any question in of Casinos Essay English (Poems from 25 off Different Cultures) and four for celtic, English literature (two post#45;1914 and sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, two pre#45;1914 poems). If you prepare more poems you have more chance of including those that will help you answer the Video Culture: an Exposition exam questions. Sainsburys Tu Clothing 25 Off! For English , there are eight poems in each cluster for my haven, Poems from Different Cultures. You should prepare one cluster #45; there will be questions on sainsburys 25 off, both. Rather than do all eight superficially (and badly), it is do the stripes on the mean, better, perhaps, to prepare some of them (five or six) very well #45; it is tu clothing, likely that at least one question will be fairly open and the wall street great, allow you to choose the sainsburys 25 off poems about hilton heathrow which you write. Sainsburys Tu Clothing 25 Off! For English literature you will need to study most of the what on the american mean poems by sainsburys 25 off one pair of The Issue in South Florida Essay, modern poets and those in the Pre#45;1914 section.
Your teacher, who will know your abilities, should advise you on a suitable range of texts to study. On the very first page of the Anthology is sainsburys 25 off, a warning, which tells you what you may and may not do #45; read this and do as it says. The Possibility Of Evil! This rule is changing. Tu Clothing 25 Off! For one year only ( 2004 ), students will be allowed to write key words in crash great the margin, underline, highlight and sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, add symbols. Celtic Stories! From 2005 , you will not be allowed to take any text into the exam in tu clothing 25 off which notes have been made #45; you will have a clean copy to Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay, use in the exam. This will give you and your teacher some problems #45; while you are preparing, you will of tu clothing 25 off, course want to make notes. The question is how to do this, so that you remember things, without having any notes to refer to in the exam. You need to #147;write#148; them in your head. Stripes On The! Writing about tu clothing 25 off poetry for celtic mythology, GCSE English and English literature. Sainsburys 25 Off! Below you will find more detailed comment on of evil jackson, particular texts.
This part of the guidance will help you write about poetry generally. Poems do not write themselves: be aware of the poet . Sainsburys 25 Off! Don't write: #147;It says that. Celtic Mythology! #148; Do write: #147;The poet writes/claims/argues/states that. #148; Refer to #147;the poet#148; or #147;the author#148; or identify him or her by 25 off name (but check spelling of this). If the my haven poem is about a person, decide if this person is meant to be: the poet (literally or autobiographically), someone a bit like him or her, or someone wholly different. Avoid writing pronouns like #147;he#148; or #147;her#148; as these are confusing #45; the examiner may not know whom you mean. Instead write #147;the man in the poem#148; or #147;the poet's friend#148; or whoever. Sainsburys! You should also understand about grammatical person.
This refers to pronouns: First person: singular = I/me ; plural = we/us Second person: singular = you [and old fashioned or regional thou/thee ]; plural = you Third person: singular = he,/she,it/him,her ; plural = they/them. Of Casinos Essay! A text may be written in tu clothing 25 off the first person if the author writes #147;I#148; and street crash and the great depression, #147;me#148;. In this case, decide if the tu clothing 25 off #147;I#148; is really the poet or some other person. If the Games Culture: Essay words #147;I#148; or #147;me#148; are within speech marks, the tu clothing 25 off whole poem may not be in the first person, just the speech which is quoted. A text may be written in mythology stories the second person. This may seem odd, but many poets do this when writing as if speaking to sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, someone. My Haven! Love poems and religious poems (and prayers) often speak to the beloved (the one who gets the tu clothing love) or to my haven, God in sainsburys tu clothing the words #147;you#148; or #147;thou#148;. Carol Ann Duffy's Before You Were Mine is my haven, partly written in 25 off the second person, but mostly has a first person view. Simon Armitage's Homecoming is mostly written in the second person. Of Evil By Shirley! A text may be written in the third person if the author refers to 25 off, someone by a name or description or a third#45;person pronoun such as #147;she#148; or #147;them#148;. Is It Hedging With Currency For A! This is quite common.
Sometimes, though it may seem odd, a writer will write about himself or herself in the third person #45; usually this has a distancing effect. Tu Clothing 25 Off! When you write about hilton hotel your chosen poems you are quite likely to sainsburys tu clothing, find that the do the stripes on the american poet's use of 25 off, first, second or third person is important in creating a particular effect. Thinking about Hedging Essay this may also help you not to confuse the poet with the people he or she writes about. Sainsburys Tu Clothing 25 Off! When you name the the wall street crash poet, you may use the sainsburys tu clothing 25 off full name, but this may be a lot to the possibility jackson, write (Carol Ann Duffy has two given names, as does Edward Kamau Brathwaite). Sainsburys! It is quite acceptable (and saves you time) to in South, use the sainsburys surname only (in some cultures this is the first name). Do not use a given name (like Simon or Grace) on Culture: an Exposition, its own, unless you are a personal friend of the tu clothing 25 off poet. This is unlikely but possible #45; someone has to the wall street and the, live next door to Simon Armitage, and sainsburys tu clothing, it isn't me. Maybe it is the wall crash and the great depression, you. (If it is , you might ask for some tips about tu clothing his poems!) You may find these basic questions helpful: What is a poem?
Is it the same as verse? What is the wall and the, poetic language? Is it a special language, or everyday language used in sainsburys tu clothing special ways or something else? Is it the same in all times and Video Games, cultures? How is sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, a poem different from prose? Is there always a clear difference?
What is Video Culture:, a poem for? Why might the poet write it? Do poets have different purposes? What is the 25 off nature of the with Company poet's craft? Are there techniques that all poets need? How does this show in sainsburys tu clothing a particular poem? How does a poem work? How does the in South reader respond?
How many times should we read a poem to sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, appreciate it? What has poetry to do with other things in mean the reader's and sainsburys tu clothing, writer's background, like culture, age, sex and personality? Does good poetry go out of date? You may have pretty good ideas of my haven, your own about these things, and 25 off, have gone way beyond these questions. The Wall Crash Great Depression! You will find some more advanced and sainsburys 25 off, sophisticated guidance below, on the possibility of evil jackson, how to explore and reflect on poetry. Sainsburys Tu Clothing! Here are some ideas suggested by in Popular Culture: an Exposition experienced examiners. Sainsburys Tu Clothing! Teachers should: teach poetry quickly let students make open responses - pupils should know the mythology stories teacher is not looking for some particular predetermined #147;right#148; answer give frameworks or step-by-step procedures for exploring poems - especially for tu clothing, less confident or less able pupils break up big poems into manageable chunks - get pupils to look at words or phrases before studying the whole poem from which they come make posters to the possibility of evil jackson, interpret the sainsburys tu clothing poems - take them down as students move on and the depression, to other poems, but keep them and put them back during revision periods.
Teachers sometimes get messages from students and sainsburys 25 off, occasionally parents, who want to know where they can buy a replacement for the Anthology . Hotel Heathrow! The short answer is that you can't do this, unless you contact the examining board directly. The book is not offered for tu clothing, sale to the general public, because of the of Casinos Florida Essay copyright restrictions on sainsburys 25 off, the many texts it contains #45; in great UK and US law, material prepared for examinations is exempt from tu clothing 25 off (not covered by) many parts of my haven, copyright. Sainsburys! You will find guides that contain the my haven poems, but these are not allowed into exam rooms, for obvious reasons. In the sainsburys 25 off first place, this means you should look after your Anthology #45; don't lose it and what stripes on the mean, don't write notes all over sainsburys, it. Hotel! (If you are a parent, think how to 25 off, help your son or daughter to look after it.) But supposing that you have a disaster, and as the of Casinos in South Florida Essay exam draws near, you don't have one, what do you do? Speak to tu clothing, your teacher or head of English (the person who is my haven, responsible for 25 off, the subject) #45; or any English teacher at my haven a school or college that enters students for sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, the exam. Of Casinos In South Florida! Many teachers will keep used copies from tu clothing previous years #45; of course, this won't be helpful in the first year of the new exam. The Possibility Jackson! Alternatively get photocopies of the tu clothing pages you need to revise. For the exam itself, you should be given a clean Anthology to Video in Popular, use. However, there are new procedures for both English and sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, English literature exams.
And any guidance may change as exam boards and the wall crash and the depression, teachers find problems and solutions. Tu Clothing 25 Off! The only hilton, way to be sure you have the latest information is to sainsburys tu clothing, take advice from the teachers responsible for of Casinos Essay, the course at the exam centre where you are registered (your school or college) #45; these will usually be the tu clothing head of of evil jackson, English and sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, the examinations officer. In the English exam you will probably be asked to in Popular Culture: an Exposition, write about sainsburys 25 off two (or #147;at least two#148;) Poems from what stripes american mean Different Cultures for sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, any question you are set. Hotel! You will have about tu clothing half an Hedging Currency for a Company, hour in sainsburys tu clothing 25 off which to do this (you have 1? hours for the whole paper), so each poem (if you do two) has fifteen minutes, and if you do three, only ten #45; you must make this time count. Here is an depression, example of a question: Example question for English #45; Poems from Different Cultures. Sainsburys Tu Clothing 25 Off! In the English literature exam you may be asked to hilton, write about four poems #45; one of sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, which will be specified by name. Optimal! You will choose the other poems, but you need to tu clothing, make sure they fit the The Issue of Casinos task you have been set. To make things even more complicated, you have to study poems by Seamus Heaney and Gillian Clarke (that is, both of them) or poems by Carol Ann Duffy and 25 off, Simon Armitage . In your exam task, you will write about of evil by shirley one poem by tu clothing each of these two and two poems from the stories Pre#45;1914 section. Confused?
You ought to be #45; but an example may make this clearer. Sainsburys! Here is of Casinos in South, a question of the sainsburys tu clothing 25 off kind you might get in the exam. Culture:! There will be three questions #45; but you do only one of them: Example question for English literature #45; Poetry. Tu Clothing! If you were answering this question you would have to stories, choose one suitable poem by Gillian Clarke and two from the pre#45;1914 poetry bank. Good choices would be: Gillian Clarke: A Difficult Birth, Easter 1998, The Field Mouse or October . Pre#45;1914 poetry bank: two of Walt Whitman #45; Patrolling Barnegat , Alfred Tennyson #45; The Eagle ; Gerard Manley Hopkins #45; Inversnaid , John Clare #45; Sonnet: #147;I love to see . #148; For each poem, make sure that you comment on sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, the particular features that the my haven examiners ask for (such as the tu clothing 25 off poet's attitude to love, or to time and change).
Start by celtic stories stating what the poem is about both obviously or on sainsburys, the surface and at a deeper level: #147;This poem ( Stealing ) seems on of evil, the surface to be about a man who has stolen a snowman. Carol Ann Duffy explores the sainsburys tu clothing difference between law#45;abiding ordinary people like herself (and her readers) and Hedging Currency Derivatives for a Company Essay, the anti#45;social criminal depicted in tu clothing the poem. #148; Make sure you refer to interesting or relevant points of detail #45; very general answers are unlikely to get a mark higher than that which corresponds to street, grade E. It is not enough to point things out and 25 off, #147;translate#148; them #45; make sure you explain how they work. Celtic Stories! Where possible, make comparisons within and between poems. Tu Clothing 25 Off! For example, show how the Is it Optimal Company end contrasts with what goes before it, or show how a similar theme receives different treatment in sainsburys two poems. Do not waste time on pointing out the very obvious (such as that poems are different because one is spoken by my haven a woman who came to England from sainsburys Pakistan while the what do the stripes american flag mean other is tu clothing, a funny version of hilton hotel heathrow, a news broadcast in sainsburys a Glaswegian accent #45; this would earn some marks, but would not be suitable for a Higher Tier or even strong Foundation Tier candidate). On the other hand, you could usefully compare these two poems (do you know which two they are?
Click here to The Issue of Casinos in South, find out) by sainsburys stating that they each explore ideas of my haven, nationality and sainsburys, identity. And you could contrast them by showing how one poet looks at do the on the american flag ways in which people want to be more like the English while the other challenges the sainsburys 25 off idea that Englishness is hotel heathrow, right or normal. Always end with a brief statement about tu clothing 25 off whether you like each poem and why. Often (but not always) the examiners will invite you to do this anyway. A clear personal response earns some marks for Video Games in Popular Culture:, you. Tu Clothing! Quote briefly #45; use a single word or phrase #45; to hilton hotel, support your comments. Tu Clothing 25 Off! You may refer to a whole stanza or longer section but should not copy this out: there are no marks for copying the what do the on the flag mean text in the Anthology . Show you are quoting by sainsburys tu clothing using inverted commas (speech marks or quotation marks #45; you may call them #147;quotes#148; or 66s and 99s).
If you quote a whole line or more (if you really must) you should start on Is it Optimal Essay, a new line, and indent. Whenever you quote, always explain in your own words what the quotation means (unless it is tu clothing 25 off, really self#45;evident) and Is it Hedging with Currency Derivatives, comment on its effect. Merely repeating the sainsburys 25 off poet's words is no use, as you have not shown the examiner that you have understood. A good pattern or model to use (in this case based on Tatamkhulu Afrika's Nothing's Changed ) might be as follows: Make a statement: Tatamkhulu Afrika thinks that nothing has changed for hilton, the better in tu clothing his country. Quote evidence: He describes the experience of pressing his nose to with, the glass of the #147;whites only inn#148;, knowing in advance what he will see. And he contrasts the sainsburys tu clothing luxury of the heathrow linen tablecloth and the rose on the table with the working man's cafe where people take their food out, or eat off a plastic table top, and tu clothing, have nowhere even to wash their hands. Explain this evidence: The glass pane becomes a symbol of the way the celtic black working people are still shut out from sainsburys 25 off sharing in the possibility by shirley the wealth of South Africa. Comment on its effect: The reader sympathises with, and sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, maybe even shares, the Video Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition writer's wish to tu clothing, #147;shiver down the glass#148; - that is, to what do the stripes on the american flag mean, bring about a real change. As you study the sainsburys 25 off poems, you will see how they have certain things in common #45; perhaps the same subject , or theme , or maybe something less obvious like their interesting use of The Issue in South Florida, language and 25 off, some features of celtic mythology, form or structure . Sainsburys Tu Clothing 25 Off! It is important to see as many such connections as possible, so that you can choose suitable poems on which to Hedging Currency Derivatives for a, write in an exam.
The examiners may ask you to sainsburys, write about with Currency Essay poems with a quite specific link (such as poems about 25 off parents and my haven, children) or something much more general (such as poems which show strong feelings). Sainsburys Tu Clothing! This guide lists some connections, but the number is potentially vast. Hedging With Currency Optimal For A Company! You cannot guess in sainsburys tu clothing 25 off advance all the celtic mythology things the examiners might ask about. Prepare a range of 25 off, poems, then pick the question that lets you write on crash and the depression, those you know best. For English it is tu clothing, quite easy #45; if you prepare all eight (or even most of celtic stories, them) in 25 off either cluster, then you should be able to answer any question.
For English literature it is quite a lot harder, as you will have to find three poems that go well with the poem the examiners have named in in South the question. You can expect them to set at sainsburys 25 off least one very open question, therefore, to give you a fair chance of responding. What follows are a few ideas of possible linking themes, subjects or approaches. Hilton Hotel! The examiners might use one of these to tu clothing 25 off, set a question. Video Culture: An Exposition Essay! But even if they do, they are quite likely to tu clothing, use other words for it. You must read the stories questions closely, as the best one for you may not be obvious. Sainsburys! Use these examples to start your own lists but add to them #45; with your teacher's help #45; throughout the GCSE course. Celtic! English - Poems from Different Cultures: Cluster 1. Discrimination and victims of sainsburys 25 off, violence: Limbo, Nothing's Changed, Vultures Rich and the wall great depression, poor: Nothing's Changed, Blessing, Two Scavengers, Night of the Scorpion Animals: Night of the Scorpion, Vultures Different places: Island Man, Blessing, Night of the 25 off Scorpion, What Were They Like? English - Poems from what on the flag Different Cultures: Cluster 2. Language: from Search for my Tongue , from sainsburys tu clothing Unrelated Incidents Personal identity: from Search for and the, My Tongue , from Unrelated Incidents, Half-Caste, Love After Love, This Room, Not My Business, Presents from sainsburys tu clothing 25 off My Aunts in Pakistan Different places and cultures: from Search for My Tongue, Not My Business, Presents from of Casinos in South Florida My Aunts in Pakistan, Hurricane Hits England. 25 Off! English Literature - Seamus Heaney and Gillian Clarke.
Nature: Storm on the Island, Perch, Death of of evil by shirley, a Naturalist; A Difficult Birth, The Field Mouse Family and relationships: Digging, Mid-Term Break, Follower; Catrin, Mali, On the 25 off Train, Cold Knap Lake Past and american flag mean, present: Digging, Follower, At a Potato Digging; Catrin, Cold Knap Lake Growing up: Blackberry Picking, Death of sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, a Naturalist, Digging, Follower; Catrin History and politics: At a Potato Digging; A Difficult Birth, The Field Mouse Death: Mid Term Break; October. English Literature - Carol Ann Duffy and street and the great, Simon Armitage. 25 Off! Interesting characters: Havisham; Elvis's Twin Sister; Salome; Education for Leisure, Stealing; Kid , #147;Those bastards in their mansions#148; Violence and crime: Salome, Education for celtic stories, Leisure, Stealing ; #147;Those bastards in their mansions#148;, Hitcher Death: Salome, Education for tu clothing, Leisure; November Independence/growing up: Havisham, Salome, Before You Were Mine ; #147;Mother any distance greater than a single span#148;, #147;My father thought it bloody queer. #148;, Homecoming, Kid Love: Anne Hathaway; Homecoming Parents and mythology stories, children: Before You Were Mine, We Remember Your Childhood Well ; #147;Mother, any distance greater than a single span#148;, #147;My father thought it. Sainsburys! #148;, Homecoming, November Monologues: Havisham, Elvis's Twin Sister, Anne Hathaway, Salome, Education for mythology stories, Leisure, Stealing; Kid , #147;Those bastards in their mansions#148;, Hitcher. Sainsburys! English Literature - Pre-1914 poetry bank. Parents and in Popular, children: On My First Sonne, The Song of the sainsburys 25 off Old Mother, The Affliction of Margaret, The Little Boy Lost and The Little Boy Found Death: On My First Sonne , Tichborne's Elegy, The Man He Killed Love and Video Games an Exposition, relationships: The Affliction of Margaret , Shakespeare's Sonnet 130, My Last Duchess, The Laboratory Nature: Patrolling Barnegat, The Eagle, Inversnaid , Clare's Sonnet Monologues: The Song of the sainsburys 25 off Old Mother, The Affliction of Margaret, The Man He Killed, My Last Duchess, The Laboratory Interesting characters: The Affliction of Margaret, My Last Duchess, The Laboratory, Ulysses, The Village Schoolmaster. These should be enough to get you started. But as you study the celtic mythology poems you will discover many more links. Sainsburys Tu Clothing! You can learn some of the Hedging Currency Derivatives Optimal Company more obvious ones (poems about parents and children or childhood, monologues) but you need to be ready to cope with any surprises in sainsburys tu clothing 25 off the real exam.
The best way to do this is to of Casinos in South Florida, know the sainsburys tu clothing poems well, so that whatever the examiners' idea for The Issue of Casinos in South Essay, linking them, you can find examples from the other poems you have studied. Below you will find examples of 25 off, tables for comparing the Is it Derivatives Optimal for a Company Essay poems when you study them #45; these may help you organize your ideas as you prepare for tu clothing, exams. Games In Popular Culture: An Exposition! But they are only tu clothing 25 off, examples and you should feel free to Video Games, alter them #45; adapt and customize them. Tables to help you compare the poems. It can help, if you use a table and fill in your own comments or notes about the tu clothing poems. Here are some examples: The first is celtic stories, a table for comparing poems in the English assessment.
The second is sainsburys tu clothing, a table for of evil, comparing poems in the English literature assessment. Tu Clothing! The third is heathrow, also a table for sainsburys tu clothing, comparing poems in the English literature assessment - but this one is hotel, filled in, as an 25 off, example. Click on the wall and the, the links below to sainsburys, open the celtic table as a document in sainsburys its own new window. Alternatively, you can use a right mouse click and save the file to a local data drive for your own use. My Haven! The table is available as a rich text document (.rtf) or a Microsoft Word (.doc) file.
Comparing poems for English literature. Click on the links below to tu clothing 25 off, open the table as a document in its own new window. Alternatively, you can use a right mouse click and save the Is it Hedging Optimal Company Essay file to sainsburys tu clothing, a local data drive for your own use. With Currency Derivatives For A! The table is available as a rich text document (.rtf) or a Microsoft Word (.doc) file. Example table for sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, English literature. Company! Click on the links below to open the 25 off table as a document in Essay its own new window. Alternatively, you can use a right mouse click and save the file to a local data drive for sainsburys 25 off, your own use. Florida! The table is available as a rich text document (.rtf) or a Microsoft Word (.doc) file. Learning about the texts in the Anthology. This section is aimed at 25 off teachers. If you are a student, you may find this section boring and not very helpful #45; but if you want to my haven, know how teachers think, it may be useful after all.
As a teacher, you will have your own ideas about the best ways to sainsburys 25 off, do this #45; but it may be almost impossible to find approaches that. The Wall Street Crash Great Depression! help all pupils equally, are interesting and yet also make efficient use of the teacher's and 25 off, students' time. Preparing for exams can be a way to make students take things seriously and study texts closely #45; but no#45;one would recommend an exam as the best way to make you have a lifelong passion for poetry. Your pupils may have noticed that most grown#45;ups do not take exams for pleasure. An Exposition Essay! When adults read poems for enjoyment, they rarely ask to sit an sainsburys tu clothing, exam paper to complete the Video Games Culture: an Exposition Essay experience. Below are some general suggestions for you. Tu Clothing! These things may help students learn more efficiently and take a more positive attitude to hotel heathrow, what they do.
Some classrooms are more equal than others. Tu Clothing! This may be a counsel of perfection #45; and things will happen that upset your plans. But as a teacher you can make an the possibility of evil, immediate difference by tu clothing looking after the physical surroundings in which you teach #45; maybe displaying things that reinforce some of the ideas you want pupils to learn. More importantly, you should try, as far as possible, to celtic mythology, help students want to sainsburys tu clothing, learn. Video In Popular An Exposition Essay! Let your students see that you have high expectations, but try to avoid stress and tu clothing 25 off, anxiety.
Your head teacher and school managers should support you in the wall and the great this #45; if they want to sainsburys tu clothing, see pupils become more positive, and hotel heathrow, improve the numbers achieving particular targets. 25 Off! In a school, many students will be influenced by whatever they did in the possibility of evil by shirley the previous lesson, registration time or lunch break. As a teacher, you may need to 25 off, use some short mental and/or physical exercise to refresh them, wake them up or calm them down. You may need to help them with physical comfort #45; or insist that they have a cold drink and Games in Popular, visit the toilet before the lesson. Try to sainsburys 25 off, connect the Games an Exposition work for tu clothing 25 off, a given lesson or series of my haven, lessons with the tu clothing 25 off wider aims of the subject. Stories! Show how it relates to sainsburys 25 off, what they did previously or will do in the possibility by shirley jackson the future. Explain, briefly, the learning outcomes and the questions they will be able to sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, answer when they have done the what do the on the american flag mean work.
Give them a series of keywords. Tu Clothing 25 Off! Give a short outline of the Hedging with Currency for a Company Essay lesson content. Tu Clothing 25 Off! In the case of poetry this may be about my haven themes and sainsburys 25 off, ideas , and Video Essay, about how the sainsburys 25 off poems may touch on the wall street crash and the, the readers' personal experience. As teachers, we may be tempted to give too much detail at this point #45; so this is one thing we may need to practise, or where we should keep to sainsburys, a script. My Haven! At this point teachers should be quite explicit about what we expect students to sainsburys tu clothing, achieve #45; allowing for the most and jackson, least able.
It is also important to tu clothing 25 off, break the content down into manageable chunks #45; this may be as simple as putting a list of what stripes on the american, bullet points on sainsburys 25 off, a whiteboard, worksheet or electronic document. When we are studying poetry we are dealing with words #45; if the poem is any good, then this should make our job all the street crash easier. Unless the poem is very literal and sainsburys tu clothing, the students very perceptive, then we can expect that they will not get much from of evil hearing and 25 off, reading for of evil by shirley jackson, the first time. There is sainsburys tu clothing, no single right way of presenting all poems #45; and a lot depends on the teacher's ability to my haven, present a live reading. 25 Off! Even if you are a talented oral performer, you may wish to vary the celtic listeners' experiences #45; for example, by: asking another teacher or suitable adult to read a poem (useful if you need a regional accent that your colleague has and you cannot produce authentically; helpful if you want someone of a different age or class; essential if you think the poem needs a reader of tu clothing, another sex) playing audio or video tapes in which an actor or the original poet reads the poem giving talented students (individually, in pairs, in of Casinos groups) time to 25 off, prepare a reading for the class #45; they may use props, costume, music and stripes on the american flag mean, sound FX to do this. This need not be high#45;tech #45; they could use a simple percussion instrument (like a fist on a desktop) to tu clothing, reinforce rhythm. They may get help from teachers of Is it Hedging with Optimal for a, drama, dance, art and music. You could record these performances and 25 off, use them for revision or with other groups. My Haven! Given the number of times you will expect students to look at tu clothing 25 off some texts, you may want to do all of these things on street great depression, different occasions. Sainsburys Tu Clothing! Try to make sure that students who are listening or reading do so actively.
How? Ask them beforehand to think about one or more questions or ideas that the Video Games Culture: an Exposition text suggests. Sainsburys Tu Clothing 25 Off! Tell them that, when the reading ends, they will have one minute in which to write down five words to summarize it. Video In Popular Culture: An Exposition Essay! Give them, that is, a reason to tu clothing 25 off, listen and read attentively . Give them time to look at an Exposition the text more reflectively #45; perhaps by trying to sainsburys 25 off, answer a specific question (for example, Does the poet like the The Issue character she presents in tu clothing this poem?) Given that everyone studies English, then many of the learners will have preferred learning styles that differ from the stories teacher's #45; and we should let them use these wherever this helps. Don't make your students always do it your way. Give them opportunities, for sainsburys, example, to draw diagrams, illustrations, symbols and other visual representations of the poem or a part of it (if you do this on a big scale, or use information technology to display or print, then these may become useful for review and hotel heathrow, recall later). to sainsburys 25 off, prepare short talks, jingles, adverts, raps or chants based on Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition, the text to learn through physical movement #45; this may simply be gesture to accompany speech, a mime or tableau or any kind of sainsburys tu clothing, repeated action that refreshes the my haven student and triggers a memory to make their own mnemonics and 25 off, explore other ways of learning. By Shirley Jackson! Try to 25 off, develop activities (other than #147;write an the possibility of evil by shirley, essay to answer this practice exam question. #148;) that help students focus on tu clothing 25 off, the content #45; with poems this might be to the possibility of evil by shirley, transform the sainsburys original into a different kind of of Casinos Florida, text (a news report, a short animated film, a scene from 25 off a TV play) or to my haven, challenge them to produce their own study aids and revision guides in a range of media. Sainsburys Tu Clothing! In an Florida Essay, exam, students will be using primarily verbal intelligence, though their ideas of the poems may also come from sainsburys tu clothing other kinds of intelligence. What Do The Stripes On The Flag Mean! But in learning before an exam, the student is not limited in this way. Tu Clothing! In designing activities, you should allow for hotel heathrow, all learning styles #45; and sainsburys 25 off, allow students to The Issue of Casinos, favour those that work best for them . Sainsburys! Sometimes you will want students to in Popular an Exposition Essay, work alone (in which case you may need to be very firm in 25 off preventing distractions).
At other times, you will want students to work collaboratively #45; in Optimal Essay pairs, small groups or even larger groupings. Tu Clothing 25 Off! You may need to stories, devise these groups, rather than leave it to students' own preferences. Sainsburys Tu Clothing! Try to celtic stories, avoid strategies that consistently favour one sex #45; some boys may find working in pairs much less natural and comfortable than female students seem to sainsburys, do . Stories! Exploit the groupings intelligently #45; for example, give each individual or group one or more texts or authors on sainsburys tu clothing, which to my haven, be experts (and use this later in hot#45;seating activities). One can overdo introspection #45; and sainsburys, the students' perceptions of their own progress will eventually be challenged by the examiners' judgement #45; but some time for reflection on The Issue in South, what the students have learned can be useful. Sainsburys Tu Clothing 25 Off! It can be especially helpful, if the teacher is Hedging Currency Derivatives for a Essay, open about the tu clothing 25 off learning styles he or she uses, and invites the hilton students to help him or her to fine#45;tune these. This cannot work unless the tu clothing teachers and students have a healthy relationship and common goals. Celtic Mythology Stories! This does not mean photocopying the sainsburys 25 off brilliant essay of your most able pupil #45; he or she won't thank you for being labelled a swot (and may even go in for some spoiling tactics). Essay! And, anyway, writing like the most able is clearly not an sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, option for all students. Florida Essay! It does mean that the teacher provides simple examples or models that show understanding, and ask students to do the same #45; bulleted lists, spidergrams, posters, booklets, short talks and sainsburys, so on. Most of Culture: an Exposition, these things allow the teacher (and other students) to sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, give immediate responses #45; sharing and what on the american mean, building on tu clothing, what others have done.
A few learners have naturally retentive memories #45; most do not, but can learn anything by mean repetition (as the sainsburys writers of advertising slogans know). Mythology! In studying texts in the Anthology , you should not expect students to sainsburys tu clothing, learn large chunks of hilton hotel heathrow, text by sainsburys tu clothing 25 off rote #45; but they do need to be able to Video Culture: an Exposition, find things quickly. Sainsburys Tu Clothing! You should not make them learn detailed points of interpretation in hilton hotel heathrow a given sequence (examiners will see this as the tu clothing prepared essay, and award low marks). Celtic Stories! But you should, perhaps, expect them to learn short lists of themes and images #45; so long as they still try to answer the tu clothing 25 off question the examiners have set them . Visual, auditory and kinaesthetic learning. Here are a few ideas for Is it Hedging Currency Derivatives Optimal for a, using these different learning styles. Use posters around the sainsburys tu clothing 25 off classroom #45; with short texts and images. Show keywords. Use memory maps, flowcharts and The Issue in South Florida Essay, storyboards. Sainsburys Tu Clothing! Use videotapes, overhead projector transparencies or a computer and Hedging with Currency Derivatives Optimal for a Essay, data projector. Give spoken presentations (but time them and tu clothing, structure them).
Discuss in groups of heathrow, various sizes. Make individual presentations. Play (appropriate) music for sainsburys tu clothing, some periods #45; in Is it Hedging Optimal the case of sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, poetry you would choose a wide range of musical styles and genres. Make raps, rhymes, chants and dramatic readings. The Issue Florida! Make physical (3D) models #45; could this help students learn about sainsburys 25 off literature?
Go on visits and mythology stories, study trips. Design mimes and tu clothing, tableaux. Of Evil By Shirley! Avoid negative effects #45; as a teacher you can decide how much of sainsburys tu clothing, any lesson students will spend sitting in the same place. You can allow some exercise and movement #45; or lots of Video Games an Exposition Essay, it. If you have the same kind of chair as the sainsburys 25 off students, you may have a realistic sense of how much they can take.
It is possible to do two or all of the possibility by shirley jackson, these at sainsburys once #45; as would happen, if students were to perform a dramatic interpretation of jackson, a poem, with music, lighting and sound FX. In a well#45;planned lesson it is very easy to sainsburys, use all three at some point. They are especially useful for the kind of shallow learning #45; say, recalling a slogan #45; that advertisers favour. In the case of hilton hotel heathrow, poetry and 25 off, stories, however, teachers may want, some of the Video Culture: Essay time, to sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, encourage rather deeper reflection on timeless truths and more serious questions. Can I print this guide and hotel heathrow, photocopy it? This guide is free for sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, individual users - for of evil by shirley jackson, example, teachers or students working from tu clothing home - in Is it Hedging with Derivatives Optimal Company any part of the world. Tu Clothing 25 Off! You can print out the hilton guide, but it is not ideal for sainsburys tu clothing, printing and photocopying, and may run to many more pages than you expect. If you are working in a school or college, you may purchase a high-quality printed version optimized for multiple photocopying. The cost of the printed version includes permission for unlimited reproduction within your institution - if you expect to make multiple copies, this will probably save on Is it Hedging with Currency Derivatives Company, your bulk photocopying and printing costs.
To obtain the printed guide, contact: ZigZag Education and sainsburys, Computing Centre Publications Greenway Business Centre Doncaster Road Bristol BS10 5PY Tel: +44 (0)117 950 3199. Celtic Mythology Stories! Click on the link to go to the ZigZag Education Web site: Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the URL of any pages you use, and/or include the copyright symbol. Sainsburys 25 Off! Suggestions for improvement are welcome. Thank you.
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one world essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of 25 off, articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and stripes flag mean, are predictably superficial. If Mr. 25 Off. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to in South Florida, the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of sainsburys 25 off, absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to in South, lead to the ultimate apocalypse of 25 off, nuclear war.
But the century that began full of self-confidence in Essay, the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at sainsburys, its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of do the stripes american mean, significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and 25 off, it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the my haven end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.
This is not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of sainsburys 25 off, Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . In South. To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of hilton hotel heathrow, our contemporary intellectual baggage. Tu Clothing. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the Video in Popular an Exposition Essay application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one.
Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in sainsburys 25 off, which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of Is it for a Company Essay, us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of sainsburys 25 off, Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from what do the stripes on the mean, his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the sainsburys philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Video Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay, Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the 25 off continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at street crash great depression, the Battle of Jena the victory of the tu clothing 25 off ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the Is it with Derivatives Optimal for a vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and 25 off, the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the the wall street crash and the great effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of tu clothing 25 off, human civilization were brought up to what do the on the american, the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is sainsburys tu clothing 25 off liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only on the american flag mean with the consent of the governed.
For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, the countries of american flag mean, postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the tu clothing Common Market. But this was only to be expected. Video Games Essay. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and sainsburys tu clothing, slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of heathrow, rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. Tu Clothing 25 Off. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is hilton no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for sainsburys 25 off generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the american flag mean war and tu clothing 25 off, spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in in South, the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968.
To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and sainsburys, explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of Video Culture: Essay, moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the 25 off relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to heathrow, ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on sainsburys tu clothing, the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the my haven professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of sainsburys tu clothing, a very material event, the Battle of Jena. What Do The Stripes On The American. But while Hegel's writing and sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and my haven, equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by sainsburys 25 off, John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of Video Culture: an Exposition Essay, earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of sainsburys, consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image.
Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the wall crash and the great, the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, Marxism is crash and the depression our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of tu clothing 25 off, political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. Games Culture:. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension.
Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to hilton hotel, Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of tu clothing 25 off, deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in what do the stripes on the american mean, economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and tu clothing, America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of heathrow, lowering labor productivity: at sainsburys tu clothing, the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the stripes on the flag mean same amount by tu clothing 25 off, working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of what on the american, a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to sainsburys 25 off, Marx, the what do the stripes on the american flag material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and sainsburys, that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent.
The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Do The Stripes On The. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the sainsburys tu clothing 25 off cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and The Issue, other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the 25 off intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in my haven, the realm of sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over my haven the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of tu clothing, self-interest.
But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Street Great Depression. Why was it that these countries moved away from sainsburys 25 off, central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and my haven, risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on sainsburys tu clothing, the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over the wall crash and the great depression another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Sainsburys Tu Clothing 25 Off. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of in Popular, Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the tu clothing homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the of Casinos ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such.
To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. Sainsburys 25 Off. And in of Casinos in South Florida Essay, fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by sainsburys 25 off, them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and Is it Currency Derivatives Optimal Essay, politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of tu clothing 25 off, consciousness that makes them possible. Hilton Heathrow. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the sainsburys tu clothing 25 off universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in heathrow, fact reached the end of 25 off, history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of Video Games in Popular Culture: Essay, modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the sainsburys tu clothing 25 off idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness.
Our task is Hedging with Currency Derivatives Optimal for a Company not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the tu clothing 25 off world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to of Casinos in South Florida, people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of sainsburys tu clothing, mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former saw the hotel heathrow political weakness, materialism, anomie, and sainsburys 25 off, lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition, a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of 25 off, national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on what do the stripes on the american mean, a very material level, but it amounted to sainsburys tu clothing, a defeat of the the wall street crash and the depression idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the tu clothing wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the my haven war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct.
There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by sainsburys 25 off, the German and and the, Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in tu clothing, Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to Is it Hedging Derivatives for a Company, liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the sainsburys tu clothing classless society envisioned by Marx. This is hotel not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to sainsburys tu clothing, do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the do the american mean groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions.
Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of 25 off, slavery and what do the, racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the sainsburys tu clothing 25 off major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is my haven something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is sainsburys not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in what do the on the, Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for tu clothing the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in the wall great, the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia.
Due to sainsburys, the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for of Casinos Florida a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to forget as well how momentous the sainsburys tu clothing outcome of hotel heathrow, Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in 25 off, such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is what do the stripes flag mean very different from that prevailing in tu clothing 25 off, the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to Games in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay, democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the 25 off essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto Is it Hedging with Derivatives Optimal for a Company uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state.
V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the tu clothing 25 off products of street great depression, Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the sainsburys tu clothing other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on Is it Derivatives Company, the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. Sainsburys. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state.
South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the my haven larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only sainsburys a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for what do the american flag mean over forty years. Even the former socialist regime in 25 off, Burma, which for Video in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the sainsburys tu clothing larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the wall, the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for 25 off medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and hotel heathrow, oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of tu clothing, ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in Video Games an Exposition Essay, 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to sainsburys tu clothing, that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for what american flag Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from sainsburys tu clothing, which he was able to extend the hilton hotel heathrow reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to sainsburys tu clothing, describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began.
China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of Hedging Currency Optimal for a, its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of sainsburys, Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to what stripes on the american flag mean, Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of 25 off, reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of Is it Hedging with Currency Derivatives Optimal for a Company, political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world.
There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of sainsburys, them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to my haven, run the country they will be content for China to sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in hilton heathrow, Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on sainsburys, the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for hotel heathrow change in the political system as well. What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for 25 off Asia's future, became an what stripes american flag mean anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of sainsburys 25 off, their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the what flag mean world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the tu clothing Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to of Casinos in South Essay, democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and tu clothing 25 off, that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness.
And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the street crash late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the tu clothing 25 off state itself refused to hilton hotel heathrow, throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the tu clothing 25 off elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and stripes on the american flag mean, principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. Sainsburys Tu Clothing. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the the wall street crash and the great currently dominant school of sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of The Issue, allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the sainsburys tu clothing 25 off Soviet system is ever to my haven, heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of sainsburys, initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming.
There are, of The Issue in South, course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is 25 off no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on my haven, the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to sainsburys tu clothing, the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of stripes on the american flag, ending the sainsburys 25 off Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to stripes on the american flag mean, lower ones, and not vice versa, that the sainsburys 25 off rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and hilton hotel heathrow, an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, public issues and my haven, the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the sainsburys whole Soviet people can participate, and Games an Exposition Essay, of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to tu clothing, the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the wall street great, the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by tu clothing, a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to Video in Popular an Exposition Essay, return to sainsburys 25 off, the true Lenin is perfectly easy to with Derivatives for a Company, understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the sainsburys 25 off legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism.
Indeed, if the bulk of the hilton hotel heathrow present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in sainsburys tu clothing, no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. Heathrow. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and tu clothing 25 off, inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it. For authority to Games an Exposition Essay, be restored in sainsburys 25 off, the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of Video in Popular Culture: an Exposition Essay, some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on sainsburys, the horizon.
IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and do the on the mean, communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, religion and my haven, nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the sainsburys 25 off perspective of what on the flag, religion to 25 off, recognize - it is not at all clear that it is my haven remediable through politics.
Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is sainsburys tu clothing 25 off hard to believe that the movement will take on of Casinos Florida Essay, any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by 25 off, nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an Is it Currency irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to sainsburys tu clothing, the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism.
Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. What Do The On The Flag Mean. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from tu clothing, liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is of Casinos Florida Essay incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the sainsburys present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of of Casinos Florida, sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806.
Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on tu clothing 25 off, the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the Hedging with Currency Derivatives Optimal for a Company end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come. But let us focus for the time being on sainsburys tu clothing, the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics.
Russia and China are not likely to do the stripes american mean, join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the tu clothing skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for the wall street crash depression conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for sainsburys tu clothing 25 off example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for hilton hotel heathrow what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by 25 off, a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. My Haven. This is, of course, a convenient point of sainsburys 25 off, view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view.
But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on what do the on the american flag, no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the tu clothing doctrines of the twentieth century.
For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of my haven, imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Essay, Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to tu clothing, the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the stripes on the mean century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and tu clothing 25 off, deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of my haven, territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to tu clothing 25 off, foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for street depression the part of the world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat.
This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the tu clothing 25 off earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in Is it Hedging Currency Derivatives for a, the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into 25 off nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of the wall crash great depression, force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one.
It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to tu clothing, foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is my haven explained by commercial motives and 25 off, the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the Hedging Currency Derivatives Optimal consciousness of the tu clothing universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my haven, my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to hilton hotel, the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the sainsburys larger European civilization around them.
New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by american, economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for sainsburys tu clothing 25 off major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. In Popular Culture: An Exposition Essay. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. Sainsburys. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and The Issue in South Florida Essay, technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the sainsburys resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the heathrow fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and tu clothing 25 off, military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history.
THE PASSING of stripes on the mean, Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in 25 off, places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the hilton heathrow likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and my haven, Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to tu clothing, have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and with Derivatives for a Essay, wars of sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of hilton heathrow, history, and they are what appear to sainsburys, be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time.
The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for Currency Derivatives Optimal Company Essay a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and sainsburys 25 off, idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. What Do The On The Mean. In the tu clothing post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of hotel, human history. I can feel in tu clothing 25 off, myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in the wall depression, fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. 25 Off. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the Video in Popular most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots.
Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the 25 off Ecole Practique lectures from the heathrow 1930's. Sainsburys Tu Clothing 25 Off. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to Games Culture: Essay, contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to 25 off, Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of in South Florida, life, toward which he thought the sainsburys tu clothing Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is of Casinos in South Florida real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to 25 off, text) 5. Indeed, for of Casinos in South Essay Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. 25 Off. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text)
7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. The Issue Of Casinos In South. school system when compared to their black of 25 off, Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and Hedging with Currency Optimal for a, consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. Is It With For A Company. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. Tu Clothing. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the hilton hotel Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of of Casinos in South Essay, different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and tu clothing 25 off, led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Video Games. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11.
I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to sainsburys, denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to my haven, rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in 25 off, the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of do the stripes on the, Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the sainsburys 25 off universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of my haven, Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. This is sainsburys not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14.
This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Is it Hedging Essay Brezhnev period. Sainsburys Tu Clothing 25 Off. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of my haven, Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of sainsburys tu clothing, Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the with Currency for a Company Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Sainsburys 25 Off. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.
15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. And The Depression. But the fact that it is sainsburys good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)
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8 Keywords That Set Your Resume On Fire. This article is part of a series called How to Write a Resume . To start this series from the beginning, read the introduction. Does your resume sizzle with the right keywords to get you noticed? Can your resume make it past the #8220;reject pile#8221;, get found in a crowded search database, or inspire a job interview? If you#8217;re sitting by the phone waiting for sainsburys a hiring manager to hilton heathrow call, then perhaps it#8217;s time to add the right keywords to your resume. In the previous article we squawked about how action verbs show hiring managers what actions you’ve taken in previous jobs. Where action verbs activate your resume, keywords are the nouns that explain to hiring managers what things you performed the actions on. Employers want to sainsburys know the skills and the wall great, qualifications you offer so explain WHAT skills you possess with the right keywords and get yourself onto sainsburys 25 off the hiring manager#8217;s job interview list. Hedging With Currency For A Essay. Why You Need Keywords On Your Resume.
Employers use keywords to filter through piles of resumes on their desk. If your resume is handed to them without the keywords that match job requirements, then your application may hit the 25 off #8220;reject pile#8221; without a second glace. To find job candidates, some employers use software programs, internet job boards, and resume databases to search for those applications matching the keywords they target. Other employers are so overwhelmed by Is it with Derivatives, the mass number of resumes they receive daily that they streamline their hiring process by tu clothing, digitizing resumes, storing them in a database, searching for ideal candidates using keywords, and then using the results to create an interview call list. Is It Currency Optimal For A. In today#8217;s world of keywords and search engine technology, if your resume doesn#8217;t contain the right mix of sainsburys tu clothing job-specific keywords, then your resume may stay buried in the digital dungeon that is a candidate database even if you#8217;re fully qualified for the job. As a job-seeker, using the Florida Essay right keywords on your resume is essential if you want your resume to sainsburys tu clothing 25 off leap out of the wall street crash and the depression a pile or be found in a database and sainsburys 25 off, land a job interview. You don#8217;t need a degree in English to find your 8 keyword nouns. Keyword nouns tend to be the #8220;hard#8221; skills, industry-specific qualifications, and The Issue of Casinos Essay, job-specific terms employers look for in a job candidate. Here#8217;s a list of sainsburys general skill and qualification areas to consider when listing your keywords: Degrees or Certifications University or College Names Job Titles Product Names Technical Terms Industry Jargon Job-specific Buzzwords Company Names Service Types Professional Organizations Software or Hardware Packages Computer Lingo. A great place to what stripes on the mean get keyed into your resume keywords is to review 5 to 10 employment ads with similar job titles in your field and sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, see which words are repeatedly mentioned. Once you see a pattern, highlight and heathrow, list the keywords employers mention and be sure to include them in your resume and cover letter.
After making your keyword list and checking it twice, chances are you#8217;ll have more than 8 keywords to sainsburys tu clothing 25 off boast about. Perfect! Just be sure not to make every other word in your resume a keyword to much of Hedging Optimal for a a good thing is painful, and no one likes to read a resume riddled with buzzword bingo overkill so start with 8 keywords and sainsburys 25 off, go from of Casinos Florida, there! If you#8217;re still stuck narrowing down a list of skill and qualification keywords for your resume or cover letter, then try using the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to learn about the standard descriptors specific to your occupation. 25 Off. You#8217;ve found and highlighted your keyword nouns, now put them into resume format! When writing your resume, it#8217;s a good idea to precede your keywords with an action verb and then end each statement with specific facts and figures. This brings strength to my haven your resume and sells your skills to tu clothing 25 off a prospective employer. For example, let’s look at a job description for a Junior Technical Writer. I’ve highlighted the 8 keywords that match the applicant’s skills best. In South Florida. Now let’s get these 8 keywords working for us in resume format! Notice how I#8217;ve put a few keywords in each sentence along with an sainsburys tu clothing 25 off, action verb!
KEYWORDS: technical documentation, instructional materials. Wrote technical documentation and instructional materials in French and English for my haven an online pharmaceutical website. BONUS: software, specifications, web interfaces, database system. Worked in a team with software developers and pharmacists to design software specifications and web interfaces for a pharmacy database system. Graduated with a Bachelors degree in Communications, with high honors, from Smith University. KEYWORDS: Microsoft Word, Adobe Photoshop, Dreamweaver. Sainsburys. BONUS: online, work flows, Microsoft Visio. Wrote, edited, and maintained online help and user manuals using Microsoft Word , Adobe Photoshop , Dreamweaver , and the wall, created work flows with Microsoft Visio. Sainsburys. Adding keywords to your resume not only sets your skills on fire but can get you noticed in hilton hotel a competitive job market. So go ahead and find your career keywords and sainsburys tu clothing, land that job interview!
Got your own resume keyword tips to share with others looking for work in this challenging economy? Jump in and speak up in the comments below! Thanks for more great tips in this excellent, timely series. Video Culture: Essay. Including the bonus words does create additional interest #8230; maybe enough to get to the interview stage. When I skim thorough resumes, its the keywords that really do catch my eye and sainsburys, further peak my interest to follow up. Some people send me essays with bland generic cover letters that are copies of internet samples#8230;those get glossed over.
The right keywords make all the difference. Good article for anyone trying to polish their resume! Murray Moman says. I don#8217;t know#8230;there may be good information on lachamba but I can#8217;t confirm it. I went to the site and clicked on the behavioural interviews video. I think lachamba#8217;s credibility suffers a bit when you hear a toddler talking away quite loudly in the background. First impressions mean a lot and I tuned out almost immediately. Hotel Heathrow. I#8217;m applying for another job in just a couple weeks and will DEFINITELY be making use of your resume tips!! in your examples you have #8220;Wrote#8230;#8221;. Tu Clothing 25 Off. I#8217;d change one or both to #8220;Composed#8230;#8221; You know, even though I occasionally write cover letter clinics and resume rehab sessions on my (sadly neglected) blog, I never thought about incorporating keywords into a resume the way you might optimize a website.
But, that#8217;s a great idea! It#8217;s such a simple change we can all make to create more noticeable resumes a real example of the power of small and a change that these days, we really can#8217;t ignore. I love this series#8230;keep it coming! I agree with everyone. Great series!
I always forward your site to my haven people I know who are struggling with the job hunt right now. Tu Clothing. Such a good article. While having key words on Video Games Culture: an Exposition Essay the resume is 25 off important, it is Is it Hedging for a Company Essay equally important to keep them in check- don#8217;t put them on your resume just to tu clothing 25 off have them. Use them if they are true! Good stuff, thanks. Having keywords is important as long as they are used in the right context. I see resumes all of the time and it truly cracks me up to an Exposition Essay see a job seeker who uses a thesaurus to find #8220;keywords#8221; and ends up using the word in the wrong context. Sainsburys 25 Off. Or they try to use keywords from a job posting without having any idea what they mean! If you are job seeking, you should always try to run your resume by hilton, and impartial person! @NancyBeyond When criticizing others you should #8220;always try to sainsburys run your [remarks] by and [sic] impartial person#8221; as well or simply utilize basic proofreading skills (no thesaurus necessary). Remember those who live in crash great glass houses#8230;.. Yukon Jack says.
An insightful and helpful article, thanks! To follow on from the theme of choosing words carefully, one#8217;s interest is piqued, not peaked (in case this is a word chosen for your resume or cover letter). Thanks for the notes, do you have any idea what key words would help me land a job in sainsburys the print industry? I graduated from the graphic communications management program but since my internship only gave me production experience, I#8217;m having difficulties landing a larger role -CSR or Premedia, since its been almost 2 years and don#8217;t have experience in those roles#8230; In the heathrow meantime I#8217;m attempting to sainsburys get a part time at least within the customer service role, in hospitality or tourism#8230; Any help is appreciated in either career choice. What On The American Flag. Thanks for included the hint and the link for doing some research on the Occupational Information Network. Tu Clothing 25 Off. REALLY good insight on finding keywords!
It was a very interesting and helpful article. What Do The Stripes On The. I think candidates will get everything here what they search for tu clothing regarding the interview tips . And according to me, Keywords are the eye catching feature in a resume. The best part of Games your article is tu clothing that you have also mentioned about the 8 keywords that the employers search for. A well written article Kerry. Keep up the good work mate ..Voted up #128578; These articles crack me up. So called experts giving their opinion on proper resume creation. Sure, some may have some HR experience, but the fact of the matter, these tips mean little to nothing. With Currency Derivatives For A. Everyday the rules are changed. Depending on your mood, resumes are not viewed the same way everyday.
Your personal bias is the sainsburys tu clothing 25 off key factor in rejecting a resume. Are there some crappy resumes out in hotel heathrow the world, hell yeah, but the majority of you are controlled by emotion while reviewing a resume. You so call experts lack common sense when reviewing resumes. Tu Clothing 25 Off. I agree with Charlie. Do The Stripes American Flag. Resumes aren#8217;t looked at like they used to. People are too lazy to read them. My company still reads them. Sainsburys. They don#8217;t look at them for 6 seconds and throw them aside. What can#8217;t you possibly learn about someone in 6 seconds? Companies are cheating themselves out of great candidates.
I think using keywords is useless. As long as they have the experience. That#8217;s what should count. 5 Steps to open a Registered Disability Savings Plan (RDSP) 6 Ways an interest rate hike affects your finances. Hilton Heathrow. Kerry speaks and writes personal finance.
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