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black essayists They are poets, playwrights, novelists and scholars, and together they helped capture the voice of a nation. They have fearlessly explored racism, abuse and violence as well as love, beauty and music. While their names and tuckman, styles have changed over the years, they have been the lady, voices of their generations and helped inspire the generations that followed them. Bruce! What follows is men papers, a list of prominent Black authors who have left a mark on bruce tuckman the literary world forever. Who would make your list? Add your thoughts in dutch company comment below. Bruce! Acclaimed American poet, author and activist Maya Angelou was born in St. Of Revenge In Works By Hawthorne Essay! Louis, Missouri in tuckman 1928. Of Revenge In Works And Poe! Often referred to as a spokesman for bruce tuckman, African Americans and women through her many works, her gift of decides words connected all people who were committed to raising the moral standards of living in bruce the United States. [1] I want to john dalton blindness, write so that the tuckman, reader can say, You know, thats the truth.

I wasnt there, and I wasnt a six-foot black girl, but thats the truth. [2] Influenced by john blindness, Black authors like Langston Hughes, W.E.B. Du Bois and Paul Lawrence Dunbar, her love of language developed at a young age. Her most famous work I Know Why the tuckman, Caged Bird Sings was published in 1969 and became the first in seven autobiographies of Essay on Kenya: Angelous life. A prolific poet, her words often depict Black beauty, the strength of women and bruce, the human spirit, and the demand for social justice. Decides To Die! Her first collection of bruce tuckman poems Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water fore I Diiie was nominated for dutch lady, a Pulitzer Prize in 1972, the bruce tuckman, same year she became the first Black woman to have a screenplay produced. Writing for adults and children, Angelou was one of several African American women at the time who explored the john dalton color, Black female autobiographical tradition. Other female authors and bruce, contemporaries include Paule Marshall who published the novel Brown Girl, Brownstones and Illinois Poet Laureate Gwendolyn Brooks, many of men papers whose poems lyricize the urban poor. Bruce! Image: 1970 Photo of Maya Angelou by Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images. Though he spent most of his life living abroad to The Methods of Revenge in Works Essay, escape the bruce, racial prejudice in the United States, James Baldwin is the quintessential American writer.

Best known for his reflections on dutch his experience as an bruce tuckman, openly gay Black man in The Karma Former white America, his novels, essays and tuckman, poetry make him a social critic who shared the pain and struggle of Black Americans. Born in Harlem in 1924, Baldwin caught the period hypothesis definition, attention of fellow writer Richard Wright who helped him secure a grant in order to support himself as a writer. He left to live in tuckman Paris at age 24 and went on to write Go Tell it on Essay Value of Play the Mountain which was published in 1953, a novel unlike anything written to date. Speaking with passion and tuckman, depth about the period definition, Black struggle in bruce America, it has become an American classic. Baldwin would continue to write novels, poetry and The Methods by Hawthorne and Poe, essays with a refreshingly unique perspective for the rest of bruce his life. Essay On The Value! In 1956, Giovannis Room raised the issues of tuckman race and homosexuality at critical period hypothesis a time when it was taboo. And during the Civil Rights Movement, he published three of his most important collections of bruce tuckman essays, Notes of The Methods of Revenge in Works by Hawthorne and Poe Essay a Native Son (1955), Nobody Knows My Name (1961) and The Fire Next Time (1963) . James Baldwin provided inspiration for later generations of artists to speak out about the gay experience in bruce Black America like Staceyann Chin and Nick Burd. Image: Baldwin, 1982, MDCarchives. Period Definition! Born in 1934, poet, writer and political activist Amiri Baraka used his writing as a weapon against racism and bruce tuckman, became one of the most widely published African American writers. Known for his social criticism and incendiary style, Baraka explored the anger of Black Americans and advocated scientific socialism. Often confrontational and designed to awaken audiences to the political needs of Black Americans, Baraka was a prominent voice in American literature.

Inciting controversy throughout his career, he was accused of Essay Value of Play fostering hate while at the same time being lauded for tuckman, speaking out against oppression. Often focusing on Black Liberation and White Racism, he spent most of his life fighting for the rights of African Americans. Men Papers! With a writing career that spanned nearly fifty years, Baraka is respected as one of the leading revolutionary cultural and political leaders, especially in his hometown of Newark, NJ. Tuckman! His representations of veronika decides to die race and tuckman, wisdom have made him an influential part of the critical period definition, Black Arts Movement along with Nikki Giovanni, Sonia Sanchez and Maya Angelou. Together they have gone on to inspire younger generations like Terrence Hayes. Image: Poet Amiri Baraka on May 10, 1975 (Photo by Santi Visalli/Getty Images) In a genre known for being traditionally white and male, Octavia Butler broke new ground in science fiction as an bruce, African American woman. Born in California in 1947, Butler was an avid reader despite having dyslexia, was a storyteller by of a Former, 4, and began writing at the age of 10. Drawn to science fiction because of its boundless possibilities for imagination, she was quickly frustrated by the lack of people she could identify with so she decided to create her own. Butler took the science fiction world by storm.

Her evocative novels featuring race, sex, power and bruce tuckman, humanity were highly praised and john blindness, attracted audience beyond their genre. They would eventually be translated into multiple languages and tuckman, sell more than a million copies. Hypothesis! One of bruce tuckman her best-known novels Kindred , published in 1979, tells the Essay on Kenya: Kenyatta, story of bruce tuckman a Black woman who must travel back in john time in bruce tuckman order to Essay, save her own life by saving a white, slaveholding ancestor. Over her career, she won two Hugo Awards, two Nebula Awards and in tuckman 1995 she became the first science fiction writer to and Poe, win the MacArthur fellowship. The self-described outsiders legacy inspired future generations of women including Valjeanne Jeffers, Nnedi Okorafor and bruce, even singer/songwriter Janelle Monae. Critical Hypothesis Definition! Image: Butler at book signing, released by Nikolas Coukouma.

As an tuckman, activist, Pan-Africanist, sociologist, educator, historian and prolific writer, W.E.B. Du Bois was one of the most influential African American thought leaders of the Kenyatta, 20 th century. Growing up in tuckman Massachusetts as part of the men papers, Black elite, it wasnt until attending Fisk University in Tennessee that issues of racial prejudice came to tuckman, his attention. On Kenya: Jomo Kenyatta! He studied Black America and wrote some of the bruce tuckman, earliest scientific studies on Black communities, calling for an end to men papers, racism. His thesis, The Suppression of the bruce, African Slave-Trade to the United States of dutch lady America, 1638-1870 remains an bruce, authoritative work on dutch lady the subject. The horrific lynching of Sam Hose in 1899 prompted Du Bois to begin writing The Souls of bruce tuckman Black Folk. Of A Former President! Calling for organized action and an end to segregation, Jim Crow laws, and political disenfranchisement in America, the bruce tuckman, prophetic work was not well received at the time of of Revenge and Poe its publication. Du Bois eventually went on to help to establish the bruce, NAACP where he became editor of its newspaper the Crisis , and a well-known spokesman for the cause.

Many of The Karma his essays from bruce Crisis were published in book form under the to die, title The Emerging Thought of W. Bruce! E. Men Papers! B. Bruce Tuckman! Du Bois: Essays and of Revenge by Hawthorne, Editorials from tuckman The Crisis. Of Revenge In Works By Hawthorne And Poe Essay! In addition to bruce tuckman, The Souls of Black Folk and the articles and dutch company, editorials for the Crisis , Du Bois wrote several books. While these attracted less attention than his scholarly works, the bruce, also focused on of a Essay the Black race covering the topics of tuckman miscegenation and The Methods in Works, economic disparities in tuckman the South. Of A Essay! Most respected for bruce tuckman, his scholarly writing, Du Bois concepts such as the psychology of colonization explored by Frantz Fanon continued being researched years later. Image: W.E.B. Du Bois, 1919, Library of veronika to die Congress. Born Ralph Waldo Ellison after the famous journalist and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ellison was known for pursuing universal truths through his writing. A literary critic, writer, and scholar, Ellison taught at a variety of colleges and spent two years overseas as a Fellow of the American Academy. In an effort to transcend the bruce, starkly defined racial categories of the 1950s, he was sometimes criticized for choosing white society over his African American identity. Identifying as an dutch lady, artist first, Ellison rejected the notion that one should stand for a particular ideology, refuting both Black and white stereotypes in tuckman his collection of political, social and critical essays titled Shadow and Act . Veronika Decides To Die! However, it was Ellisons first novel that established his place as an bruce tuckman, important literary figure in America. Published in 1952, the first lines of Invisible Man struck a chord with hundreds of thousands of on The of Play readers, I am an bruce, invisible man.

No, I am not a spook like those who haunted Edgar Allan Poe; nor am I one of your Hollywood-movie ectoplasms. I am a man of dalton blindness substance, of flesh and bruce tuckman, bone, fiber and liquids and I might even be said to possess a mind. I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to see me . Dalton Color! . . Considered one of the tuckman, most important works of fiction in the 20 th century, Ellison was heavily influenced by Zora Neale Hurston and is often cited as an influence with many writers today such as ZZ Packer and Toni Morrison. Men Papers! Image: National Archives, United States Information Agency staff photographer. Bruce! Alex Haleys writing on of a Former Essay the struggle of African Americans inspired nationwide interest in bruce genealogy and popularized Black history. Best known for The Autobiography of Malcolm X and the novel Roots , Haley began his writing career freelancing and men papers, struggled to make ends meet. Eating canned sardines for weeks at a time, his big break came when Playboy magazine assigned him to bruce, interview Miles Davis. The Karma Of A President Essay! Proving to be such a success, the magazine contracted Haley to do a series of interviews with prominent African Americans. Known as The Playboy Interviews, Haley would eventually meet Malcolm X and ask permission to write his biography.

The Autobiography of bruce tuckman Malcolm X would soon become an international bestseller and The Karma President Essay, Haley became a literary success. Embarking on a new ambitious project, Haley was determined to bruce, trace his ancestors journey from of Revenge in Works by Hawthorne Essay Africa to America as slaves, and bruce, tell the story of their rise to freedom. Former President Essay! After a decade of research and tuckman, travel to West Africa, the epic novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family was published in 1976. The book was a national sensation and Former Essay, won the Pulitzer Prize, eventually becoming a television miniseries that would shatter television viewing records when 130 million viewers tuned in. If you enjoy reading Alex Haley, consider reading Jesmyn Ward and bruce, Ta-Nehisi Coates. Essay Value! Image: Mickey Adair/Getty Images. A primary contributor of the bruce, Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes was one of the Former Essay, first to use jazz rhythms in bruce tuckman his works, becoming an early innovator of the literary art form jazz poetry. While many American poets during the 1920s were writing esoteric poetry to color, a dwindling audience, Hughes addressed people using language, themes, attitudes and ideas that they could relate to.

Influenced by Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Carl Sandburg and bruce, Walt Whitman, his poetry caught the attention of dutch lady novelist, critic and bruce tuckman, prolific photographer Carl Van Vechten. To Die! With Van Vechtens help, his first collection of poetry was published in tuckman 1926. Men Papers! Establishing Hughess poetic style and commitment to Black themes and heritage, The Weary Blues had popular appeal. When his first novel Not Without Laughter was published in bruce tuckman 1930, it won the Harmon gold medal for Essay on The Value of Play, literature. A prolific writer known for his colorful portrayals of bruce Black life from the 1920s-1960s, Hughes wrote plays, short stories, poetry, several books, and President Essay, contributed the lyrics to a Broadway musical. Bruce Tuckman! In addition to his extensive body of work, he inspired other artists and highlighted the Essay Jomo, power of art as a catalyst for bruce, change. Seen as a voice for Essay Jomo Kenyatta, their own experience, writers during the bruce tuckman, Harlem Renaissance often dedicated their work to Hughes. Of Revenge In Works By Hawthorne And Poe! The play A Raisin in bruce the Sun by playwright Lorraine Hansberry was named for President, a line from a Langston Hughes poem. Image: Langston Hughes, 1936 Carl Van Vechten, Library of Congress. In 1925 as the bruce, Harlem Renaissance gained momentum, Zora Neale Hurston headed to New York City. By the men papers, time of bruce its height in the 1930s, Hurston was a preeminent Black female writer in the United States.

Its said that her apartment was a popular spot for john dalton, social gatherings with the well-known artists of the time like Countee Cullen and Langston Hughes. Tuckman! Of Hurstons more than 50 published novels, short stories, plays and veronika decides, essays, she wrote her most famous work Their Eyes Were Watching God in bruce 1937. Jomo! Unlike the style of tuckman contemporaries Richard Wright and men papers, Ralph Ellison, Hurston did not write explicitly about Black people in tuckman the context of company white America. She focused on the culture and traditions of African Americans through the tuckman, poetry of their speech. Of A! Despite her earlier literary success, Hurston would suffer later in her career. Having difficulty getting published, she died poor and alone. Years later, Alice Walker would help revive interest in bruce tuckman Hurstons work with her essay, In Search of Zora Neale Hurston, published in Ms. magazine in 1975. This essay, alongside her edits of notable works like I Love Myself When I am Laughing and Then Again When I am Looking Mean and Impressive, brought Hurston to the attention of a new generation of readers. Image: Zora Neale Hurston, Photo by Carl Van Vechten (1938) Library of dutch Congress.

Born in Mississippi in 1908, Richard Wright is best known for his novels Native Son and Black Boy, that mirrored his own struggle with poverty and bruce, coming of veronika to die age journey. A staunch critic of tuckman his literary contemporary Zora Neale Hurston, Wrights work was overtly political, focusing on the struggle of period definition Blacks in bruce tuckman America for period hypothesis definition, equality and economic advancement. Wrights dreams of bruce becoming a writer took off when he gained employment through the Federal Writers Project and received critical attention for a collection of short stories called Uncle Toms Children . Veronika To Die! The fame that came with the tuckman, 1940 publication of Native Son (not to The Methods of Revenge by Hawthorne and Poe, be confused with James Baldwins titular essay: Notes of a Native Son, which criticized Wrights work) made him a household name. It became the first book by an African American writer to be selected by the Book-of-the-Month Club. His novel Black Boy was a personal account of growing up in bruce the South and eventual move to lady company, Chicago where he became a writer and joined the tuckman, Communist Party.

While the book was a great success, Wright had become disillusioned with white America and the Communist Party, and moved to Value of Play, Paris. He spent the rest of his life living as an bruce, expatriate and he continued to write novels. Image: Carl Van Vechten Collection, Library of Congress. Nobel Prize- and Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist Toni Morrison is considered the veronika to die, voice of bruce African American women. Hypothesis! Growing up in bruce tuckman an integrated neighborhood, Morrison was not fully aware of dutch lady company racial divisions until her teenage years. Dedicated to her studies, she went on bruce to earn her masters degree before moving to Howard University to teach. It was in veronika the 1960s when Morrison became an editor at Random House that she began to tuckman, write. While she had published The Bluest Eye in Essay on The 1970 and Sula in 1973, The Song of Solomon was the tuckman, book that set her on The Methods in Works by Hawthorne the course of tuckman literary success. To Die! It became the first work by bruce, an African American author since Native Son by Richard Wright to critical hypothesis, be a featured selection in tuckman the Book-of-the-Month Club. The publication of men papers Beloved in 1987 is considered to bruce, be her greatest masterpiece and critical hypothesis, won several awards, including the bruce, Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.

Young authors Danielle Evans and Branden Jacobs-Jenkins cite Toni Morrison as one of their influences.

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otago no homework Arguably the adventure capital of bruce, New Zealand, visitors to Queenstown fall in love with its stunning mountain ranges, crystal clear lakes and endless adventure activities. No wonder then that it is john one of the most highly sought after tourist destinations in the world. Bruce Tuckman? Winter is the best time to see Queenstown, when the surrounding mountains are blanketed in snow and the skifields are in full swing. However, the Essay on The Value, area is equally picturesque during the other seasons, especially autumn when the trees turn various shades of bruce tuckman, yellow, red and brown.

Temperatures range from daytime highs of of Revenge and Poe Essay, 10 degrees Celcius in winter (50 degrees Farenheit) to 22 degrees (72 degrees Farenheit) in summer. However, the weather in Queenstown - as elsewhere in the South Island - can change rapidly, so it is advisable to wear layers of clothing that can be taken off or put on, as temperatures change. Never venture into bruce tuckman the New Zealand bush without warm clothing - and having done your homework! The bush may look pretty, but if something goes wrong you need to be fully prepared. Queenstown is the kind of place where there is plenty to do - no matter what your interests. For those who like to watch the world go by, there are many, many cafes, restaurants and bars where you can relax, put your feet up and let others do all the Value, hard work. Fans of snow can choose from skiing, snow boarding, snow shoeing, ice skating, snowmobiling and the spectacular heli-skiing or boarding; water-lovers can try canyoning, jetboating, river surfing, canoeing, kayaking, fishing, rafting hot pools, sailing and cruising. For those who like to tuckman look down on the world, theres parapenting, para sailing, hot air ballooning, sky diving, abseiling, aerobatics, scenic flights, gliding, hang gliding and The Karma Former President, scenic flights. Sports-oriented visitors can try their hand at clay target shooting, mountain biking, tennis, climbing, hunting and horse treking.

There are numerous guided tours which take in the wildlife, scenery, historic sites, cultural landmarks, gardens, wineries and the many other attractions the region has to offer. Bruce Tuckman? In fact, no matter how long you stay in Queenstown, you couldnt possibly do or see everything. Here are some of our favourite activities: Bungy jumping: The AJ Hackett Ledge Bungy above Queenstown itself Hollyford Track: a guided walk through 1000-year old forests The Milford Sound Fly/Drive: be driven over to die, magificent alpine roads to bruce tuckman spectacular Milford Sound, then fly back across the The Karma Former Essay, same rugged mountain ranges. Skyline Luge: fun for all the family Lake Wakatipu: cruise the tuckman, lake on Essay on The of Play, board the veteran steamship Earnslaw to Walter Peak High Country Farm, where you can take a farm tour or go horse trekking. While Queenstown is the major drawcard of the area, dont make the mistake of bruce tuckman, thinking it is the decides to die, only place to see in this part of Otago. Far from it. Lakes Wanaka, Hayes, Te Anau, Benmore, Hawea and Dunstan between them cover a huge area, and each has its own character.

Some are the natural result of volcanic action over the millennia while others are manmade. Some can be driven alongside for miles, others can be glimpsed briefly through the tuckman, native bush. There is something indefinable about The Karma of a President, this area which touches each person who visits in a different way. Some people are awed by the majesty of the mountains, some that such beauty can even exist, while others fall in love with the native bush in all its resplendent colours, textures and tuckman, variety. The South Island lakes are riddled with paths, tracks and walkways for visitors to dalton enjoy the bruce, pristine pleasures of the decides to die, bush. But take care when venturing away from paved areas. It is very easy to become disoriented or even lost, and weather conditions here change rapidly. Never go into the bush without adequate food and clothing, enough for all eventualities. Tuckman? And make sure somone knows where you have gone and when you plan to be back. The New Zealand bush may look benign, but it can be a terrifying place when youre lost, alone, cold, hungry, and with no means of contacting the outside world because there is no cell phone service. Preparation is the key.

Much of Dunedins prosperity and heritage can be directly attributed to gold. The discovery of a major gold field near Lawrence in 1861 set the settlement of Kenyatta, Dunedin alight. As word of the find spread, immigrants poured in by the thousands. Bruce? The town expaned exponentially in all directions which resulted in a variety of problems caused by a lack of the services and dutch lady, facilities that we take for granted. But the tuckman, wealth provided by the gold also had huge benefits, resulting in New Zealands finest architecture, its first daily newspaper and other trappings of civilisation. Today, that architecture - with its distinctly Scottish feel - is a tourist drawcard. From cathedrals, churches and civic buildings to private homes, early stone and wooden buildings abound throughout the city giving it an aura of bygone England.

Buildings of this age, style and quality of on The Value, preservation are not found anywhere else in New Zealand. Where there are beautifully restored buildings, there are often stunning gardens, and Dunedin is no exception. Tuckman? The Dunedin Botanic Gardens is famous for its rhododendron dell, where in spring the variety of colours astonish visitors. In autumn the maples are resplendent in their stunning reds, yellows and dalton color, browns. There are many plant collections including the bruce, alpine house, arboretum, herb garden, camellias and a geographic plant collection and the Winter Garden Glasshouse. The Gardens are also home to a large aviary which houses 200 exotic birds. Decides? Another garden well worth a visit is Glenfalloch, a woodland garden on bruce tuckman, the Otago Peninsula. Dunedins location at the end of a long inlet on one side, and open sea on another side, sheltered in the lee of mountains at the rear, means the ocean and its environs paly a large part in life here - and not just for humans.

A wide variety of creatures use the sea as a source of food, nest in the dunes, live their lives and nurture their families in the sand, cliffs, trees, tussocks and grasses of the Otago Peninsula. There are many ways to get up close and personal with these creatures through organised tours which balance the needs of tourists with maintaining the habitat in which the wildlife live and on Kenya: Kenyatta, breed. The main tour companies are Monarch Wildlife Cruises and Tours, the Royal Albatross Centre, Natures Wonders, Orokonui Ecosanctuary, Sea Breeze Otago Wildlife Fishing Tours and the New Zealand Marine Studies Centre (which houses a large aquarium). However, Dunedin is not all scenery and wildlife. Its large student population mean it has a strong cafe and restaurant culture. So much so that you will not be short of choice for eating out: Thai, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Asian, Italian, American (yes, theres McDonalds!), and other international cuisines vie with ale houses, pubs, cafes and formal European-style restaurants.

Just a tip about tipping: in New Zealand it is not necessary to tip customer service staff, including waitstaff. If the bruce tuckman, service was excellent, by all means do so, but there is no formal tipping culture here. Tourism activities based around food are not uncommon in Dunedin. Two immediately spring the mind: Cadbury World and Speights Brewery. Cadbury World is a sensation of sight, sense and sound where you can visit a working chocolate factory and sample the products made there. The Visitors Centre is a colourful and to die, educational environment with chocolate themed displays where you can learn about the tuckman, history of Cadbury and The Methods in Works by Hawthorne, chocolate through the ages. Across town is Speights Brewery, still on the same site it has occupied since 1876. Speight’s has become one of Otago’s biggest icons with its “Pride of the tuckman, South” marketing mantra, and is one of color, New Zealand’s most loved beers. The Speight’s Brewery Tour is an bruce tuckman award winning interactive and The Karma Former President Essay, informative guided tour through an bruce historic working brewery. You’ll see, smell, touch and taste the ingredients which go into making Speight’s beers and discover how Speight’s became a legend in the south. You can sample the of Revenge in Works and Poe Essay, fine product and visit the Speight’s Brewery shop, where you will find genuine Speight’s beer gear for tuckman sale.

The towns of Alexandra, Clyde, Cromwell, Roxburgh and Ranfurly are ideal bases from which to explore the surrounding historic countryside. Alexandra bills itself as the on Kenya: Jomo, hottest town in New Zealand and it might just be right! Certainly it is one of extremes in temperature: it can reach the high 30s (celsius) during the day and head down below zero at bruce tuckman night. This makes it a great place to grow fruit, vegetables and grapes that struggle elsewhere in Otago. In fact, grapes grown in Central and Essay on Kenya: Jomo, turned into Pinot Noir have gained international recognition as being among the best in the world. You can check out this claim by bruce, visiting any of the Essay, many wineries open to the public, and tasting their offerings for yourself. If you are a wine aficionado this is something you will not want to miss.

New Zealands smallest post office can be found just north of Alexandra, at Chatto Creek. Although officially closed in 1975, it has been reopened, complete with ancient typewriter, wooden telephone and old post boxes. The road to the small town of Clyde runs along one side of a huge gorge, which winds backs up behind the Clyde Dam, a concrete hydro-electricity dam. It is a dramatic entrance to the town, where many historic buildings from early settler days still survive. At the other end of the gorge, where the bruce, river opens out to form Lake Dunstan, lies Cromwell.

Also a fruit-growing hub, it is an easy drive from in Works by Hawthorne, here to Centrals other tourist towns. The winter ski fields of The Remarkables, Coronet Peak, Treble Cone, Cardrona, and Waiorau Snow Farm are all within a comfortable driving distance. Perhaps one of the oddest attractions here is the 80-hectare Cromwell Chafer Bettle Reserve. This beetle is rare and endangered and the reserve makes up almost its entire habitat. However, even if you visit the reserve it is unlikely you will see the beetles, as they live underground. But, on the plus side, the reserve offers a rare glimpse into what the area around Cromwell once looked like. The tiny town of Roxburgh lies in Teviot Valley, on the banks of the tuckman, Clutha River, 40 km south of Alexandra. An important centre during the 1860s goldrush, it now relies on Essay on Kenya: Jomo Kenyatta, livestock and stone fruit production for its economic survival.

Five kilometres to the north of Roxburg is the Roxburgh Dam, the tuckman, earliest of the major hydroelectric dams built on the Clutha. The areas best preserved stone cottage, Mitchells Cottage, can be found just north of Roxburgh and is worth a visit even if just to marvel at the surrounding scenery. Lovers of veronika decides to die, art deco architecture wont want to miss Ranfurly, the largest settlement in the Maniototo district, which is bruce tuckman renowned for its art deco buildings. Located 110 kilometres north of Dunedin, it lies in dry, rough country and is a service town for the local farming community. John Dalton Color? Nearby is the bruce, village of color blindness, Naseby, home of the countrys oldest national sporting trophy, the tuckman, Baxter Cup, awarded for the ingenious sport of curling.

This is decides to die where rocks are slid across ice along paths created by tuckman, witch-like brooms. Originally played in winter, it is now a year-round sport with both an of a Former President Essay indoor and outdoor rink open to bruce the public at Naseby.Also here is the dalton color, not-to-be-missed Museum of Fashion which houses an bruce enormous collection of womens couture dating from the 1960s, plus more than 500 Jim Beam ceramic decanters. The entire Central Otago area has a history dating back to the earliest settlers, much of which is still in evidence today. The picturesque ruins of the Bendigo Goldfields have been preserved by the high altitude climate, and the settlement of dalton color blindness, Welshtown has some of the tuckman, best-preserved miners huts in Central Otago. The largest town in North Otago is veronika decides to die Oamaru. Many of bruce, its historic buildings are made from the white marble-like stone, for The Methods in Works and Poe which this part of Otago is bruce famous. Drive down the main boulevard to see how this stone was used to excellent effect in days gone by. Continue round to the port area and the vibrant historic precinct which features a working 19th century streetscape, with businesses that match the era. During Novembers Victorian Week, locals and visitors alike don period costume and celebrate the towns heritage. One of this countrys best known novellists is Janet Frame, who lived part of her life in Oamaru. The house she lived in between 1931 and 1943 is dutch company open daily to visitors, and bruce, contains memorabilia of her time there.

By contrast, the Seacliff Lunatic Asylum, up the coast a ways, where Janet Frame was incarcerated for a time has long gone. All that remains are the concrete foundations and an eerie feeling, possibly the ghosts of the 37 women inmates who perished when the complex caught fire one night in 1942. As with other parts of Otago, wildlife is central to tourism activities here and Oamaru boasts a world famous eco-tourism facility at the Blue Penguin Colony. This is New Zealands largest scientifically monitored blue penguin colony, yet is only two minutes from the centre of town. The Methods In Works By Hawthorne And Poe Essay? You can take a guided tour or, if you prefer to go it alone, there are several other places along the coast where penguins can be seen. There are free public viewing hides at Bushy Beach, 10 minutes from Oamaru, at Katiki Point, Moeraki 35km south, and at tuckman Shag Point, 50km south of Oamaru. The best time to see penguins is at sunrise when they enter the water, and at dusk, when they return home from dutch lady company, their days fishing.

Moeraki is well worth a visit. First, there are the famous Moeraki Boulders, the origins of which are unclear. Bruce? These huge round mounds litter the beach and are quite unlike any rock formations you will see anywhere else. President Essay? Moeraki itself is a tiny fishing village set in a sheltered bay, and one of the few of its type remaining in this part of the world. Here, on a promontory overlooking the bay is one of bruce tuckman, Otagos, if not New Zealands, best restaurants, Fleurs Place. Specialising in - not surpringly - seafood that is locally caught, you can enjoy watching the boats come and go, and veronika decides, if you are very lucky enjoy a visit from a wild seal waiting for bruce his lunch to be thrown from the pier.

Walk off your meal at the nearby Katiki Point lighthouse where you can wander among seals if the tide is high, or watch them frolicking on the rocky shore below. Many people miss this gem of dalton, a spot with its historic 19th century wooden lighthouse, great coastal views, old Maori pa site and wildlife-watching hide, which is a great pity. That Otago was the centre of the gold boom in the early days is tuckman common knowledge; what is not so well known is that there is still a working goldmine in the region, albeit on an entirely different scale. Macraes Gold Mine is the countrys largest, producing more than half of New Zealands annual gold haul. Macraes is goldmining on a huge scale with enormous dump trucks each capable of carrying 40-tonnes and excavators chewing through 250-litres of diesel an hour. But such excavation comes at a cost to Essay Kenyatta the environment. Fortunately, the bruce, local wetlands and heritage areas have been restored by the mining company. Veronika? The two-hour tour of this extraordinary site is worthwhile if time permits. Back on the coast, and further south is another historic site well worth stopping to look at.

Signposted from the bruce, township of Waikouaiti, Matanaka is New Zealands oldest farm, settled by Aussie businessman, Johnny Jones in the 1840s. All the original buildings are still here, and in good repair. Theres a school house, stables, barn, granary and dalton, a three-seat toilet. Information about bruce tuckman, this era is well set out on big boards inside the school house. Access to this clifftop site, is across a large field - in that typically understated way that New Zealand does so well. Most people miss this well hidden attraction, so it is most likely you will have the complex to yourself. The next town up the coast, Karitane, is another fishing village. It sits astride a small peninsula, with open sea on one side and a tidal estuary on the other. The peninsula was once a fortified Maori pa, and today a track wanders along the top, offering majestic 360-degree views. One of the of a Former President, key tourist attractions here is bruce tuckman not for the slothful. It involves kayaking to semi-underwater caves, the entrance to which is only passable on favourable tides.

Should you survive this experience and need fortification, the of a Former Essay, Evandsale Cheese Factory is not far away. Housed in a section of another former mental asylum (there were once three in this area!), it produces cheeses equal to anything with Made in France on the label. Tastings allow you to sample the tuckman, various types on offer which run the gamut of very mild to very strong. Perfect accompaniment for to die a glass of Otago pinot noir. Instead of returning to the main road after visiting Karitane, take the coast road which winds its way above the sea through Seacliff and Warrington, and back to the main road at Evandsale and bruce, Waitati. The Karma Of A President? This is a very pretty drive, offering fabulous views over the Pacific to the entrance to tuckman Otago Harbour and Purakanui.

If you time it right - the john dalton color blindness, first Sunday of the month - you can even drop in on bruce, the little country market held at Seacliff and sample locally produced food. Wildlife fans wont want to Essay Value miss the new Orokonui Eco-sanctuary, perched on the hills above Blueskin Bay, overlooking the township of bruce, Waitati.This 300-hectare reserve is home to many rare and endangered species of on The Value, bird, insect and fish. Tuckman? A $2 million pest-proof fence has been erected around the perimeter, and all non-indigenous predators with an appetite for native creatures have been eradicated, allowing the gradual reintroduction of small populations of indigenous birds and insects. The ecosanctuary is also home to New Zealands tallest tree - and no, its not a native! - and a very informative visitors centre. South Otagos main centre, Balclutha, is located on the banks of the Clutha River, 50 miles south of Dunedin. The Methods Of Revenge And Poe Essay? The town services practically the whole of the lower Clutha basin, with its many sheep and dairy farms. It is also the gateway to the Catlins, one of New Zealands least known tourist areas. Now that the roads hereabouts have been improved, however, an increasing number of tuckman, visitors are finding their way to this unspoiled, rugged piece of coastline. A word of warning, however. This area is not full of Essay on Kenya: Kenyatta, cafes, restaurants and other man-made attractions, although there are sufficient to meet travellers needs.

What you will find is unusual rock formations, long deserted beaches, a fossil forest and bruce, swathes of native bush. To get to Cathedral Caves, for instance, is a 30 minute forest and beach walk which leads to spectacular 30 metre high caves. However, these caves are accessible at low tide only. The Karma? And, at Cannibal Bay is bruce tuckman a small sheltered bay and beach, which was the site of early Maori encampments, New Zealand sea lions can often be seen. The sedimentary rock formations here are spectacular. At Nugget Point is Essay Jomo one of New Zealands oldest lighthouses, built in 1869.

The area is a wildlife sanctuary for yellow-eyed penguins, fur seals, elephant seals and many sea birds. Bruce? There is a spectacular 20 minute walk from the car park to the lighthouse. Nearby is a viewing hide from which the penguins can be observed coming and going from the water, usually at the beginning or end of the day. Nugget Point has an excellent restaurant and a number of quality accommodation options. The principal town in The Methods of Revenge by Hawthorne the Catlins is Owaka. Tuckman? Here you will find an excellent museum, which details the areas fascinating past. This section of coastline was notorious for shipwrecks, at a time when the principal form of transport was by sea, before roads were built through this difficult and arduous terrain. The museum is well worth a visit if you want to see how people lived here in the early days. Otagos i-SITE visitor centres will gladly help you with all your travel arrangements and information enquiries. These can usually be found in the main street of most towns. The Otago Museum is Dunedins most visited attraction.

It makes for a great introduction to Essay on Kenya: Kenyatta the southern region. Explore, its richness and vibrancy through outstanding collections covering culture, nature and science. Entry to the main museum is bruce tuckman free, although there is a charge to visit Discovery World, which is a stunning collection of butterflies roaming free through a tropical rainforest. Nature lovers should not miss it. Otago Settlers Museum focuses on The Methods in Works and Poe Essay, the social history of Otago. Bruce Tuckman? Learn about the john dalton blindness, early settlers and their stories through pictures, artifacts and bruce, even old vehicles. Entry is free. The Otago Peninsula frames Dunedins harbour, providing a spectacular setting for unique and natural features. The peninsula is decides spectacular and visits to the area include the opportunity to view albatross, fur seals, penguins, nesting birds and dolphins.

Found on the Otago Peninsula are colonies of the worlds rarest penguin, the yellow-eyed penguin, sharing secluded beaches with New Zealand fur seals. Bruce? Nesting grounds of other birds, including the white-fronted tern, and the blue penguin can also be found here. But visitors are asked to respect these areas as many are rare or endangered. The Royal Albatross Colony at Taiaroa Head is the only mainland breeding colony of albatross in the world. There are guided tours and Essay, you will find the drive out bruce, from the city spectacular, with its views, attractions and eateries.

Dont miss Larnach Castle, and drop into some of the arts and crafts studios dotted along this lovely piece of coastline.

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6 Pitfalls Of Copying A Professional Resume. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. Tuckman! 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration.

Recently, I was contacted by a job hunter who wanted an update to his existing resume, a service I offer to former clients in my practice. The resume looked strikingly familiar on some level, but the veronika to die name didnt resonate. Then, it hit me: I HAD written it but for someone else. Bruce! Professional resume writers encounter this scenario all the dalton blindness time, and for the most part, its flattering to bruce, think our work is compelling enough to be copied (at least, if we can ignore the obvious part pertaining to copyright law). Veronika To Die! However, heres what worries me when I spot a copied rendition of a professional resume (mine or anyone elses): the copier rarely grasps the bruce tuckman branding and building process that went behind it in the first place. Therefore, hes doing himself a grave disservice by borrowing the veronika decides format, writing style, and tuckman tone, then pasting his career story in between that of someone else. Pitfalls Of Copying A Professional Resume. The worst part? The borrower often fails to understand this context, and goes right on using it as if it were a coherent and targeted document.

So, if youre determined to make your resume look like the john dalton color blindness masterpieces that you see on sites like mine, here are six likely problems that youll encounter in bruce tuckman doing so: 1. You Can Easily Unravel The Original Brand Strategy. So you think you have the same career path and john dalton blindness can therefore just tweak a word or two? Not so fast. For a resume to be effective, the strategy is set (prior to bruce, any writing) based on john blindness how well the candidate fits the desired role and the potential for bruce tuckman, screen-out factors based on his or her personal career path, age, industry preferences, and a host of other factors. I often compare a clients career path and achievements to dalton color, others in the industry, pulling out any areas of strength or weakness in credentials (including education and former jobs) to make decisions about word choice and emphasis. The writing process itself only starts after lengthy data mining and bruce tuckman analysis of the of a Former President Essay job goal. Then, content is wrapped around and woven through the strategy, along with personality traits, resulting in a total picture and unique value proposition. Given this process, any changes to the resume by tuckman someone who doesnt understand the candidate will create problems in the message and while these nuances may go unnoticed by you, they are all key factors in whether a resume gets read or dismissed.

2. You Might Slide Into Generalizations That Blur The Message. Of Revenge Essay! Heres what one candidate did with my power summary that described market-leading achievements (including a 70% rise in revenue over 2 years, a totally restructured team and profitable turnaround effort, plus a total obliteration of the competition): Dedicated and hard working professional with over 12 years of experience in the food service sales and marketing industry, Successful experience in strategic planning, analysis of results, and international media relations. Now, if you havent read lists of bruce tuckman, overused words for resumes, it might be time to do so. Words like hardworking or successful experience are both no-brainers and would not be taken seriously by employers plus, theyre a dead giveaway the writer doesnt know what he is doing when trying to describe himself. And put words like created, spearheaded, and developed in the document so many times that theyll lose their meaning. Hopefully, youll refrain from describing all your achievements as successful and reference a thesaurus to avoid using the same word four times in one sentence (as I recently saw in a copied document). Heres where training in power verbs can really save the day. Not convinced? Most professional writers count word occurrences (yes, really) and tend to scan documents for on The, our favorite words, just to ensure employers remain fully engaged in your resume.

4. Bruce! Your Changes Can Mess Up The Formatting. John Color Blindness! Professional resume writers are masters of presentation and formatting, to the point that theyll incorporate tricks and nuances into bruce a resume that escape your untrained eye. In fact, just moving a sentence or two will often throw an entire page into Essay Kenyatta disarray, because youll be challenged by figuring out tuckman, how to veronika decides to die, adjust headings or change point sizes for tuckman, spacer lines. Worse yet, you might feel the need to shrink the font below 11 points. This should only be done for certain sans serif fonts, and dutch then reviewed on different monitors to verify that the over-40 crowd of bruce, employers can read your document. 5. Your Writing Might Suck Up Space (Or Not Make Sense) Professional resume writers specialize in veronika decides something your English teacher never approved of: sentence fragments. Thats right we boil ideas and full sentences down to the most minute of details in order to avoid that font problem that I just described. Best practices in bruce tuckman journalism (you didn#8217;t know that resume writers use the Associated Press Stylebook, now did you?) dictate that sentences must be short, conveying meaning in the first 5 to 10 words. (25-word sentences are held up as the Holy Grail.) So, with minimal practice in tight writing, your sentences might be as long as the one I just reviewed in a copied resume: 79 words! It#8217;s close to impossible for your resume to The Karma, pass a 10-second scan with a dense paragraph like this. In addition, lack of tuckman, parallel sentence structure is company a dead giveaway that your resume wasnt professionally written. Parallel structure means that your sentences are written in bruce tuckman alignment with each other (such as fragments that all begin with nouns, or verb forms that consistently appear in past tense).

6. There Wont Be Any Way To Update Your Work Professionally. Your personal work style and energy will rarely (if ever) show up in someone elses document. So, youre already operating at a severe brand disadvantage before even trying to have someone update the resume for you. Dutch Lady Company! Think about it: you started with someone elses strategy, brand message, tone, and bruce presentation, and tried to decides, plop a mixed bag of verbiage over the original text. Bruce! Now, it really doesnt represent you, and this will make it difficult for a professional resume writer to to die, make sense of it without starting fresh (which would have been my advice in bruce the first place).

In summary, you can certainly TRY to adopt a professionally written resume as your own, but the The Karma of a Former pitfalls that can trip you up along the way can actually hurt your job search results. Youre better off pulling in some formatting styles that appeal to you, and tuckman writing about your own career historyfrom scratch.

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Free Information Technology essays. Over the past century, communication and communication systems have developed enormously. The massive growth in bruce tuckman bandwidth demand has led to various technologies in communication facilities in in Works by Hawthorne todays network. One of the main factors for continuous research to create more efficient communication systems is the need to send more data (information) through a communication medium (channel) [1], communication through fiber optic is bruce tuckman, one of them. Fiber optic communication is a communication method that uses light pulses to john color blindness transmit information (data) from one point to another. Figure 1.1 represents a block diagram of optical communication system which consists of an optical transmitter, a communication channel, and an optical receiver. Optical communication system can be categorized to guided and unguided syetem. In guided lightwave system, the transmitter emits optical beam through a fiber optic which in that case the beam remains spatially confined. Unguided ligtwave system is similar to the spreading of bruce tuckman microwave system because the Jomo, optical beam spreads in space but in forward direction because of its short wavelength.

Unguided optical systems are less proper for broadcasting applications than microwave systems because of beam short wavelength they need very accurate pointing between the transmitter and bruce, receiver [2]. However, this thesis does not consider unguided optical communication system but will focus on the guided optical systems. Figure 1.1: a generic optical communication system [2]. A guided optical fiber is a cylindrical waveguide that made from low-loss materials, in general silicon dioxide. The waveguide core has a refractive index a little higher than that of the outer medium (cladding), so that light pulses is directed along the axis line of the fiber by total inside reflection. John Color? Generally a guided fiber optic communication systems consist of an optical transmitter to change an electrical signal to an optical signal for transmission through inside the optical fiber, a cable has several bundles of optical fibers, optical amplifiers to amplify the power of the bruce tuckman, optical signal, and an optical receiver to reconvert the received optical signal back to the original electrical signal [3]. Figure 1.2: guided optical communication system [3]. Optical fiber technology development is color blindness, considered as a major driver to the revolution of the information technology and tremendous progress on telecommunication that has been seen in recent years. Moreover it the bruce, most adequate unique transmission medium for data signals, voice and video.

Indeed, at present optical fibers have entered virtually in all sectors of telecommunication networks [4]. By year 1930, Heinrich Lamm introduced one of the first attempts to use optical fiber to send image by using a short bundle of optical fiber for The Methods in Works by Hawthorne and Poe possible medical imaging. However, no additional works were done after the demonstration phase, because the technology for manufacturing low-loss fibers with acceptable light confinement was not yet done [5]. Further work and tests for image transmission via fiber optic continued till 1960 when the bruce tuckman, attenuation of glass-clad degraded to about1 dB/m. Although this attenuation makes fibers to be used for medical imaging, it is too high for communication until 1970 when it decreased less than 20 dB/km by Essay on Kenya: Jomo Kenyatta, using a novel fabrication technique. Bruce? At the same period, GaAs semiconductor lasers, running continuously at room temperature, were revealed. Dutch? Low loss (attenuation) optical fibers together with optical so- urces led the efforts for enhancing the fiber-optic communication systems [6]. At that time it was revealed on the fabrication of first single-mode fiber with an attenuation of 0.017dB/m at the 633-nm helium-neon line and bruce tuckman, that declaration was considered a great breakthrough with many others developments which opened the door to fiber optic communication. In the beginning of 1980, first terrestrial optical system became available commercially with less than 0.1 Gb/s as a data rate. Within period of less than quarter of a century the development has been rapid as by an increasing in the system capacity by a factor of 100,000 [6]. To increase the benefits of fiber optic many technologies have been developed to get more network capacity, reliability, scalability and less cost and one of the of Revenge by Hawthorne and Poe, first technological advances was the capability to carry multiple light channels through one fiber optic cable.

It achieves buy combining (multiplexing) different optical frequencies (wavelengths) onto a single fiber and that what is bruce tuckman, known Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) [7]. First WDM created in the late 1980s by using the two widely spaced wavelengths in the 850 nm and 1310 nm (or 1310 nm and The Karma President Essay, 1550 nm) regions. The a second generation of bruce tuckman WDM saw in early 1990s, occasionally called narrowband WDM, in which 2 to 8 channels were used. The Methods And Poe? These channels were now apart at an interval of about 400 GHz in the 1550-nm window. Bruce? With 16 to 40 channels and spacing from 100 to on The Value 200 GHz Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) systems were emerging in mid-1990s [8], since year 2000 when the tuckman, number of lady company wavelengths reached to over 100 per bruce fiber and that number provides massive network capacity [7]. Currently, most of modern optical telecommunication networks composed of a plenty of The Methods by Hawthorne Essay various devices. Working such a network is a challenge task. It needs an accurate planning; taking into account all technological needs and offers of the optics, to tuckman end up with an operating network which provides the best return on Essay on Kenya: Kenyatta the spent investments. Fiber optic has vast advantages over bruce tuckman, other transmission media because:

Unlike the copper that depletes the natural earth resources, it is Value, made of cheapest resources in the earth (sand). The information travels with the speed of light. Optical pulses are immune to the Radio frequency interface (RFI) and electromagnetic interface (EMI). It is not affected by atmospheric conditions. Very low Bit Error Rate (BER) 10^-11. The only bruce tuckman, limitation that limits the bandwidth of an john color blindness optical fiber is dependent on the equipment that creates the light in the fiber [9]. Optical Fiber Structure. In its simplest form an optical fiber consists of cladding that surrounds the cylindrical core that is made of silica glass. The core which is a central part of the fiber, has a refractive index (refractive index term refers to the change in light speed in vacuum to its speed in other media) of N1, is bruce, higher than refracting index N2 of cladding. So when the light beam enters the fiber, the cladding forces it to remain in the core, and the beam travels down the fiber because of internal reflection between of cladding and the core [10].

Figure 1.3: Optical Fiber Structure [10]. Optical signal can travel through the fiber in lady company many ways and that corresponds to a particular mode. Each mode is determined by the angle of incident of the optical beam. Tuckman? Internal reflection can take place at any angle greater than the Essay Jomo, critical angle but optical light may not propagate through the tuckman, fiber on all angles and that because some of dalton incident angles result in bruce tuckman destructive interference and veronika decides to die, that leads to bruce prohibit light propagation, in contrast with other angles that cause constructive interferences which allows the light to blindness propagate. The mode of the fiber is the number of bruce tuckman paths for the light rays inside the cable and veronika decides to die, according to that numbers and tuckman, structure, fiber cables can be classified as a single mode and multimode fiber. Single mode fiber permits propagation of dutch company light beam by no more one path and its core size (diameter) is around 9-10 ??m. Bruce? Multimode term refers to the matter of fact that many light beams (mode) are carried at same time through the waveguide (over more than 100 modes at a time) with size of its core diameter around 50??m or 62.5??m. In general, the diameter of the The Methods in Works by Hawthorne, single mode is smaller than multimode diameter and because of bruce tuckman that the number of reflections in single mode for a light passes inside the core is lesser than in multimode. Such reasons leads to fact that optical pulses experience very low attenuation and Former, makes the signal to bruce tuckman travel further (long distance) and on The, faster and higher bandwidth compared to multimode fiber that is used in short distance because of high dispersion and attenuation [2].

Figure 1.4: Single mode and multimode fiber optic. The main advantage of multimode fibers over the single mode is that a light could be inserted simply on tuckman bigger core and allows lesser coupling loss for example, through an LED. But injecting the light in the single mode is difficult process because of thinner core diameter and that is one of dutch its drawbacks. Bruce Tuckman? The one of problems in multimode fiber is intermodal dispersion. This is due to the inequality in velocities of light for on The Value of Play each incident angle. So instead of a sharp ray, multiple light beams are received at the far end, with separated in the time domain. This result increases with the distance between the two ends, therefore offering a lower bit rate. Bruce Tuckman? However dispersion problem can be lessen by decreasing the number of modes which can be reduced by diminishing the decides to die, core radius, reducing numerical aperture, and increasing the light wavelength and that can be seen in the following equation: To find the number mode m in multimode fiber [11]:

Where V is the normalized frequency. Ko =2 ??/?? , and a is the core radius. ?? represents the tuckman, wavelength of light in a vacuum. There are numerous impairments that affect signal propagation and shorten transmission distance in fibers. The Methods By Hawthorne And Poe Essay? The major impairment that affects signal propagation is attenuation. It is a property of the fiber and it is a consequence of the tuckman, several material, structural, and to die, modular impairments in a fiber. Tuckman? It is given as a specification for a particular fiber type. Attenuation means loos of light energy (It is called optical loss) when the light pulses travel through fiber from one point to the other point and it is directly proportional to the length of the cable [12]. An intrinsic fiber loss and Essay Jomo Kenyatta, extrinsic bending loss are two components that optical loss (fiber loss) consists of. Intrinsic loss can be characterized to [1] [13]:

Material absorption loss: it results of imperfection and impurities in the fiber. Raleigh scattering loss: it is bruce, because of the collision of light quanta with silica molecules in the core and that causes a scattering in different directions. Extrinsic bending loss includes [1] [13]: Microbending loss: due to imperfection in the cylindrical geometry of fiber through the manufacturing cycles. Macrobending loss: bending of on The Value of Play fiber (core and cladding) in small radius leads to certain modes not to be reflected and causes loss. Figure 1.5: Extrinsic bending losses type [13]. Attenuation factor ?? represents the loss in dB per fiber length in bruce kilometer. Power attenuation can calculate by by Hawthorne Essay, using [1]: dp/dz Represents the power change with respect to bruce the length. So, if P1 is considered input power and Jomo Kenyatta, L is the length of the fiber cable, the output power P2 can be calculated by using equation 1.4. ?? in dB/Km can be calculated by using equation 1.5. Typically ??0.25 dB/km for a single mode fiber in the 1550 nm band.

?? = 0.5 dB/km for bruce a single mode fiber in the 1310 nm band. Attenuation was considered the biggest obstacle at beginning of optical communication technology. It was very high (was more than 1000 dB/km) in the glass optical fibers but new process was invented by using silica as the main material, reduced the attenuation to less than 20 dB/km at carrier wavelength about 1??m. Progressing the optical fiber manufacturing technology decreased the attenuation quickly to the typical values that can be seen in the figure 1.6. The curve in Essay Value the figure refers to the region around 1300nm and tuckman, 1550nm where the Essay, attenuation at bruce these region has minimum values whereas at region between 800nm and 900nm the attenuation at maximum value and that refers to the historical values before the development when the light source operated at the wavelengths from that region [14]. Figure 1.6: attenuation curve of silica based optical fiber [14]. Dispersion is The Methods in Works and Poe, another impairment that effects on the optical signal when travel through fiber optic cable. Each optical pulse has various spectral components or multiple frequencies and each of them has its own velocity that can pass through fiber cable in different paths.

Such reason leads each component to reach at the end of tuckman fiber in different interval time. The time differences depend on different spectral components that lead to a longitudinal spreading of the pulse along the Z-direction (direction of propagation of the optical pulse) of the fiber (cylindrical waveguide). The optical spread amount depends on the length of fiber and the bite rate [1] Over adequately long fiber the dispersion may cause intersymbol interference (ISI) whereas in john color blindness high bit rate, two consecutive pulses are adjacent to each other causing difficulty in detecting the bruce, pulses and The Karma of a Former, that means increasing in bit error rate (BER).There are two dispersive effects affect the optical pulse in the fiber: intermodal dispersion and chromatic dispersion [12]. Intermodal dispersion: Takes place in multimode fiber only bruce tuckman, since different modes have various group velocities. Chromatic dispersion: Is named group velocity dispersion (GVD) and occurs in single mode type because of frequency dependence of the group velocity. The sources of Essay Jomo chromatic dispersion are [13]: 1- Material dispersion: Occurs because of variation on account of bruce tuckman refractive index of core as a function of wavelength and takes place even when different wavelengths pass at of a Former President Essay same path.

2- Waveguide dispersion: in bruce general, any optical signal travels through the Former Essay, optical fiber; practically eighty percent of optical power is confined inside the core and bruce, rest of the power into Essay Value cladding. Absorption is other type of loss that may affect the light propagation. This type comes when some molecule of the hydroxide anion OH. which is called hydrogen water molecules are combined in silica fiber during manufacturing process. Because OH anion of water can absorb light at bruce 950nm, 1240nm and Essay on The Value of Play, 1380nm but this absorption is less at higher wavelength. Practically, it can be avoided by tuckman, changing the transmitting wavelength to 1550nm because the attenuation reduced from 0.5 dB/km at1300nm to 0.001db/km at 1550nm [15]. Since fiber cable is considered practically as an imperfect cylinder and perfectly without constant physical dimensions, the lack resulting from the manufacturing process are the causes for the differences in lady the cylindrical geometry. This difference also leads to tuckman what is known birefringence whereby a fiber with birefringence causes a propagating pulse to lose the balance between the dutch lady company, polarization components. This leads to a point where different polarization components pass at different velocities creating pulse-spread, and this spread is tuckman, polarization mode dispersion PMD [1]. Generally, modern fiber-optic communication systems contain an optical transmitter, amplifiers, and receiver.

Transmitter is used to convert an electrical signal into an optical signal to color blindness send into tuckman the optical fiber, and use multiple kinds of amplifiers to recover and boost the weak optical signals that experience from different loses that mentioned before. At the end of optical fiber and before optical signals reach to destination an Essay on The Value optical receiver is used to bruce tuckman detect and dutch lady company, convert signal to an electrical signal. Bruce Tuckman? The information transmitted is The Karma Former President, typically digital information generated by computers, telephone systems, and cable television companies. The most widely used optical transmitters are semiconductor devices like laser diodes and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The main difference between LEDs and bruce tuckman, laser diodes is dutch lady, that LEDs produce incoherent light output, whereas laser diodes produce directional coherent light output. When it in optical communication, it is bruce tuckman, necessary be efficient, supply high optical output power, compact, and reliable, when operating in an optimal wavelength range, directly modulated at of Revenge in Works by Hawthorne and Poe Essay high frequencies [16]. Commonly, optical communications LEDs are made from gallium arsenide (GaAs) or Indium gallium arsenide phosphide (InGaAsP). Since InGaAsP LEDs work at a longer wavelength than GaAs LEDs (1.3 micrometers vs. 0.81-0.87 micrometers), both output spectrum, while equivalent in energy is bruce tuckman, broader in wavelength terms by 1.7.

The spectrum width of LEDs is function to higher fiber dispersion, and that leads limit their bit rate-distance relationship. LEDs are used with local area network applications with bit rates of 10-100 Mbit/s and transmission distances of a few kilometers, local-area WDM (Wavelength-Division Multiplexing) networks with multimode fiber cable since this type of fiber accepts large angle light [15]. Laser diodes are frequently directly modulated because the light output is controlled by a current applied to the device. A photodetector, typically is a semiconductor-based photodiode, is the main component in the optical receiver which uses photoelectric effect to convert light source into john color electrical signal. There are different types of photodetector, the first type was made from Indium gallium arsenide, then several type follows the first generation like p-n photodiodes, p-i-n photodiodes and Metal-semiconductor-Metal (MSM) photodetectors which are used for circuit integration in bruce generators and decides, wavelength-division multiplex as a result of their stability [17].

A converters (Optical to electrical) are usually connected with a limiting amplifier and a transimpedance amplifier to produce a digital signal ( electrical domain) from the incoming optical signal, which may be attenuated and distorted during travelling through the fiber optic cable. Before the data is passed on, additional signal processing applied like clock recovery from data (CDR) achieved by a phase-locked loop [17]. Because of the limitation of nonamplified fiber span to approximately 200 km for bit rate in the Gbs, using optical amplifiers in bruce tuckman the optical networks are very important to work perfectly. Optical amplifier used in three different places along fiber transmission link. Amplifiers operating as power amplifier, their function are to amplify the power signal before it is decides, launched on the line to extend the transmission distance before further amplification is required. As line amplifier are placed at particular points along the transmission link to tuckman restore the signal to its original power level. Finally, as a preamplifier, it increases the signal level at the input of an optical receiver to improve the detection performance for john blindness the signal [12]. Bruce Tuckman? Optical amplifier has same functions of on The of Play electrical amplifier or repeater. Optical Repeater is known 3R generator and that means it reshapes, reamplifys and retimes the optical signal but after O-E-O signal conversion. In contrast the optical amplifiers amplify data stream totally in the optical domain and that make them entirely transparent to signals and protocols [1].

There are three types of amplifier: Doped fiber amplifiers: they amplify light at specific wavelength and make use the cores of fibers which are doped with elements. Tuckman? They amplify an optical signal by veronika, a doped optical fiber as a gain medium. Doping fibers with the rare earth erbium are effective at wavelength range between 1520 and 1560 nm. Bruce Tuckman? Erbium doped fiber amplifiers or EDFAs ( Figure 1.6) is common example for doped fiber amplifier and veronika decides to die, has gain up to 30 db and that means it outs 1000 photon for each 1 photon in [16]. In past before EDFA deployment, individual wavelength through fiber had regenerated one time each 40 km long by using expensive electronic device and tuckman, increased to 1500-2500 km long when use more recent EDFA system [7]. Figure 1.7: Erbium doped fiber amplifiers [1]. Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers: These types make use of an adapted semi-conductor laser. When photons of light pass through the active region some of extra energy of electrons loses in the form that more photons match the initial wavelength. So any optical signal travel through the active region is The Methods in Works by Hawthorne and Poe Essay, boosted as it can be seen in figure 1.7 [18].

Figure 1.8: Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers [18] Raman Amplifier: the bruce, amplification process is taken place by nonlinear interaction. between a pump laser and the signal within an blindness optical fiber. Two types Raman amplifier has: distributed Raman amplifier and lumped Raman amplifier: A distributed type uses the transmission fiber as the gain medium by multiplexing a signal wavelength with a pump wavelength. Tuckman? Lumped Raman amplifiers use shorter, dedicated length of dalton fiber for amplification process. The gain providing by Raman amplifier depends mainly on bruce the optical frequencies, polarization and pump frequency. It is noticed from the The Methods by Hawthorne and Poe, figure 1.8 that maximum gain when pump-signal frequency difference 13.2 THz [12]. Figure 1.9: Raman Amplifier gain [12].

The main advantages of Raman amplifier are possibility to amplify variable wavelength and can be used to extend the Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers EDFAs and it is used with single mode fiber. But high pump power needs is the main disadvantage of Raman amplifier also the need of complex gain control and bruce tuckman, noise are two points add to the disadvantages [19]. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Generally, multiplexing term refers to techniques which combine multiple signals for transmission over a scarce resource. The principle idea is to divide a shared resource into equal smaller parts to be used in parallel to achieve a specific task. In this method, the utilization of resource is multiplied without expanding the resource itself. Multiplexing technique is also applied in optical networks by combining many fibers into one cable. TIME Division Multiplexing (TDM) is prominent example of that method [1]. Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a method of multiplying the available optical fibers capacity by Essay on The of Play, using parallel channels, each channel uses a dedicated wavelength of light as it cleared in bruce figure 1.9. WDM and Frequency Division multiplexing ( FDM) both share same principles, where WDM relates to light wavelength in veronika decides fiber cable FDM corresponds to analogue transmission but WDM is tuckman, more reliable than FDM since it is totally passive.

The main advantage of WDM is increasing a transmission speed without increasing the capacity of the connections, and that done by dividing a high bandwidth bitstream into several time slots which each one carries traffic on a lower bitrate. In other words, upgrading to higher capacity does not need to change the veronika decides to die, backbone of fiber optic network but just needs to implement WDM and upgrade the transmitters and the receivers of the network. This technique allows new optical advance generation to be applied without laying new fiber [20]. Usually, WDM system based on tuckman light spectrum between 1460 nm to 1625 nm because optical signals experience relatively low attenuation at this region as shown in figure 1.1x. This region is divided into 3 regions: short band (S-band), congenital band (C-band), and long wavelength band (L-band). Most of WDM systems use C-band and extended to use L and S bands to increase capacity of system [7].

Figure 1.1x WDM regin. Figure 1.10: Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) Before proceeding to examine different type of lady WDM, it will be necessary to summarize the bruce tuckman, usage of WDM technology advantages: Upgrade the capacity of current fiber networks without adding new fibers. Add transparency feature to Kenyatta optical channels since they can transport any transmission format: analog, digital at bruce tuckman different a synchronize bit rate.

Add scalability feature since any additional demand, it is required to buy and Essay Jomo, install equipment at the fibers end. Use wavelengths for routing and switching and that adds another dimension to time and space. Depends on bruce wavelength pattern, WDM is divided into two types: Dense WDM (DWDM): It is The Methods and Poe, chosen for transporting very large amounts of tuckman data traffic over long distances in the telecommunication system. From the size of data that can carry it is considered an optimal way of combining advanced technology functionality with cost efficient transport. DWDM able to transport 76-96 lambdas (channels) in conventional band (C-band) in the 1550nm region with 50 GHz spacing and The Karma President Essay, supports 120-160 wavelengths (called ultra-dense WDM) in the L-band with 12.5 GHz spacing. In general, DWDM channels can carry data with 10-100 Gb/s as a bit rates and can reach to 3000km as maximum distance and in transoceanic system, transparent link can reach up to 20,000km.

Recently, commercial systems have ability to transport accumulated traffic capacity in the range of 100 Tb/s [21]. Bruce? The long distances that DWDM can reach comes from the advantage of the operating window of the on Kenya: Jomo Kenyatta, EDFA Amplifier to boost the optical channels [22]. Coarse WDM (CWDM): it is similar to DWDM by using light wavelength to send signals over a single fiber. It uses 20nm wavelength spacing and it is wider than DWDM and that is bruce, why CDWM is less costly than DWDM. In addition CDWM supplies only eight [23]or 16 out of 18 lambdas (in c- band) between any two CDWM multiplexers, which are usually passive, over a pair of single fiber. Wavelengths of CDWDM can carry payload 1.2, 25, 4, 5, or 10 Gb/s which [21]. The maximum distance link that CWDM supports is 100km and that because of dutch CWDM uses a specific wavelength range that cannot be amplified by EDFA amplifier . CWDM is suitable for tuckman low-latency and john color blindness, high bandwidth but it is low scalable, complex installation, cost, and operation than DWDM [23]. WDM enabling equipment. DWDM systems consist of several main components as show in figure : Figure 1.11 DWDM system structure.

Optical Transmitters and Transponders. To increase the number of wavelengths in 1550nm band and minimize the signal impairments effects like dispersion, the optical transmitter should be very high resolution, accuracy narrow-band lasers. Such lasers allow close channel spacing. The optical transmitter lessens loss of power and attenuation which to allow optical signal to pass long distances through fiber optic and a high level of signal integrity. Optical amplifiers can be used by these lasers to tuckman amplify the signal strength to extend the transmission distance [24] [14].

The design of the laser systems should be: Follow the ITU-T wavelength frequencies for interoperability and component selection issues [24]. Laser system should be tunable to Essay on Kenya: Jomo control the emission wavelength on tuckman demand [9]. Some of DWDM systems use a component called a transponder, which uses optical-to electrical-to optical(O-E-O) conversion to convert a broadband optical signal to specific wavelengths (1330nm or 15550nm to a precision narrow-band wavelength). This conversion is necessary for veronika to die devices which are not equipped with precision narrowband lasers to tuckman multiplex onto a single fiber, like ATM switches, routers [24]. They used to amplify optical signals to decrease the effects of Value of Play power loss and attenuation that coming from tuckman, passing light pulses through optical fiber. Use the optical amplifier or not in the DWDM depends on the optical transmitter technology and fiber optic long because not all DWDM network types need to boost the optical signals before sending since the signal reaches to fiber ends terminal at level which photodetector at receiving side can detect and recover. Additionally, optical amplifier technology is the dalton, key to achieving the high-volume transmission, DWDM high speed to occur [24]. Optical Multiplexers and Demultiplexers.

Optical multiplexers and demultiplexers are very important devices and they are considered a core of DWDM technology. Optical multiplexers are used to bruce combine transmit optical signals that have different wavelengths into a composite signal which have boosts by optical amplifier if need to amplify before sending onto single optical amplifier. Optical demultiplexrs have opposite function to Value multiplexer by splitting the composite optical signals into bruce tuckman their component wavelengths at the receiving terminal [25]. [14] Typically, optical multiplexers are passive devices, and work like high precision prisms to split up the individual colors of the of a Former President Essay, DWDM signal [24]. Optical receivers are used to detect arriving optical signals and convert them to a suitable signal for processing by the receiving device [6]. Tuckman? Typically, optical receivers are passive wideband devices that have ability to detect light over wide range of wavelength between 1300 to 1550 nm region [24]. Remote Optical add/remove Dense multiplexer (ROADM) Remote Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers (ROADMs) are essential devices in DWDM for adding or dropping specific wavelengths (channels) from a fiber that is dense wave division multiplexed and on The Value, bypass other remaining wavelengths. Usually, they are installed in a multi wavelength fiber span [7]. ( Figure 1.12: Remote Optical add/remove Dense multiplexer (ROADM) [7]. Hierarchy of optical network. Geographically, optical networks are segmented into four tiers, each one depends on the number of users served, demand capacity, geographic area which the tier covers.

Figure 1.13 presents 4 tiers that optical network serves: metro access, metro-core, regional, and backbone tier [7]. Metro access partition is at bruce tuckman the network edge where the dutch lady, end-users can exchange traffic (collects/distributes) with the network; it serves 10-100 users with few kilometers distance long. The main reason to build this network is to serve the end-user in direct way [26]. Moving up the bruce, hierarchy, metro-core tier aggregates the traffic from thousands of customers that relate to access networks and interconnects number of central offices of telecommunication or cable distribution head-end office by passing 10s to100s of of a Former President kilometers. Bruce? Jump to regional networks which interconnect multiple of metro-core networks, each network in lady this tier is responsible for carrying portion of traffic that passes several metro-core areas. The entire regional networks serve about100s to 1000s of tuckman users who cover hundred to a thousand kilometers [7]. Last tier in the four-layer is Backbone (long-haul) networks which span 1000s of kilometers and dutch, share millions of users because of carrying the inter-regional networks traffic [27].

Figure 1.13: Hierarchy of optical network [7]. There is other network architecture based on three-layer as in figure 1.14. Application layer is the top of bruce this model which contains voice, video, and data services. In Works By Hawthorne And Poe? The next layer is called intermediate layer which based on electronic technology such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switches, SONET/SDH switches, and IP routers. These electronic devices pass their payloads to Optical layer (configurable WDM layer) to bruce be carried into wavelengths and routed dynamically through optical nodes by using WDM technology and optical switches [7]. Figure 1.14: three layer model [7]. According to [12], multiwave optical network can be divided into two layers: logical layer and veronika to die, physical layer and each layer is expanded to sub- layers as introduced in figure 1.15. Logical layers can be acted as a packet/cell-switched client logical network (LN) and all electronic components are contained in this layer, while physical layers contain optical components and bruce tuckman, acts as a server for only one logical network or more. The interface between two layers in term of of Revenge in Works by Hawthorne Essay hardware can be noticed in figure 1.16 which is located at external port of Network Access Station (NAS). Bruce? NAS is considered as a cut line between optical and electronic domain and each NAS connects to Optical Network Node (ONN) via one or more pairs of fiber which is called access link. Physical layer is spitted to: Optical layer and Fiber layer.

Optical layer focuses on generation and transmission of optical connection, routing, and survivability and has four sub-layers: Optical/waveband path, ?? channel , Optical connection, and Transmission channel. Logical connection (LC) is established between external ports (electronic domain) of two NASs through optical nodes and carries logical signal in electronic format like IP packets, ATM cells, or analog video. Every LC is carried by what is called a Transmission channel that is used to convert logical signal in electronic domain (logical layer) to transmission signal (Optical domain) which is part of optical layer (figure 1.15). The conversion process usually happens in the transmission processor (TP) that exists in NAS with taking into account the in Works Essay, requirements of the tuckman, optical device that transports it for veronika decides example the bandwidth of the optical transmitter (OT), optical receiver (OR), and spectrum channel. Optical connection (OC) is tuckman, a connection established according to the organized actions between nodes (ONN) and stations (NAS).

It is used to tune the transceiver of NASs to the assigned wavelength of the ??-channel. Fiber layer encompassing the features of the supporting the infrastructure of fiber. The fiber layer is subdivided further into Former President the fiber link sublayer and fiber section sublayer. Virtual connection (VC) is created between two end systems and based on logical path LC which is sublayer from logical layer. In this case Logical path has two logical connections (LC) terminated by Logical Switching Nod (LSN). Figure 1.15: Optical network layer [12]. Figure 1.16: Layered view of optical network connections [12]. Figure 1.17:Typical connection with multiple hope [12]. Optical network concepts. A network using fiber optic as a transmission medium provides a connections for users to enable communication between them by transporting data from a source to a destination. To perform this process, it requires an tuckman intermediate stage which data can be processed for lady control operation and follows the essentials of bruce tuckman optical networking functions.

For successful transportation of dutch optical signals, it essentially follows the methodology of bruce interconnection different optical devices altogether and operational procedures. The structure of simple optical network can be seen in veronika decides to die the figure 1.18 which depicts number of bruce interconnected nodes with link of optical fibers. Each optical node may act as a transceiver unit with multifunction. It can receive, transmit and processing/switching (if necessary) the traffic. John? Generally, the physical connections of optical fiber is point-to-point when connects nodes together. Such links are populated by one or more pairs of fiber and each fiber in pair carries traffic in one direction (unidirectional) or in both directions (bidirectional) and last one is not common [7]. Logical link can be established by using fiber links when optical signal traverses through one or many nodes (uninterrupted optical signal) to reach the destination. Ideally, a single wavelength ?? is assigned to each channel (link) to travel from source to destination across multiple optical nodes (uninterrupted link). Bruce? Lightpath is a term used to refer to the signal carried on a specific wavelength, data can be transmitted over these lightpaths in time of the john dalton blindness, connections set up and apply controlling mechanism to validate the whole data transmission between each transmitting and receiving node [28].

As a result, optical transport networks are considered circuit-switched which preconfigure optical circuit path to the bitstreams directly from source to destination between nodes. Bitrate of any bitstream is determined by the transmitter and receiver devices. Although there are different devices operate on different bitrate available in the market such 2.5Gb/s or 10Gb/s, different bitrate circuits can be used with each other on the same WDM network because of bruce tuckman its transparently for different bitrates. Essay Of Play? This important property of DWM is called grooming which means combining different lower bitrate bitstreams into one with higher bitrate as a shared connection part [9]. Figure 1.18: Optical network structure [28]. Optical network node and switching elements. An optical node plays main role in tuckman WDM network since it achieves several tasks depending upon network requirements and its type.

Sending, receiving, resending or redirecting optical signals to nodes neighboring connected nodes are the main functions of optical node. It can also function as a router or a switch when resend or redirect optical signals to desired networking nodes, and as a router when directs an input signal wavelength to a specified output port [28]. When the desired signal can be isolated from an incoming multiplexed signal and routed by the router to a specific port then it is called wavelength router. But if the Essay on The Value, wavelength of the isolated signal is changed before routing to the output port, then router is known wavelength converting router and in tuckman other case is wavelength routing switch( optical switch) in case of switching the dutch lady company, wavelength to the complaint signal wavelength [29]. MEMS methods connecting arrays of micromirrors that can deflect an optical signal to bruce tuckman the appropriate receiver. Search our thousands of essays:

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