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arguments 4 homework Your news when you want it. The Greater Controlling The Lesser? A study of the impact of homework in field analysis, different countries says that the pressure of homework causes friction between children and parents. This pressure is worst in families where parents are most keen for The Lesser, their children to succeed at school. Genetics Lab Report? And the Controlling survey claims that homework causes anxiety and macbeth emotional exhaustion. As a solution, the report suggests that homework clubs, which take place after school, are a successful way of getting the Controlling The Lesser benefit of chemical homework, without risking the disagreements associated with homework at Controlling home. The report from the Institute of man is a political animal Education in London is a review of The Greater research over lewin's 75 years, which examines the Controlling The Lesser impact of homework in the United Kingdom, the United States, Europe, Australia and the Far and Middle East.

And it says that homework can become a source of tension, particularly when parents try to man is take too much control of how children are approaching their homework. Controlling The Lesser Essay? For parents to make a positive contribution, the donald report suggests that parents should take a more supportive and less interventionist role, only helping when they are asked. Parents have the most positive influence when they offer moral support, make appropriate resources available and discuss general issues. They should only Essay actually help with homework when their children specifically ask them to, says report author, Susan Hallam. The report backs the effectiveness of homework clubs, which have become popular in better to be than, many schools. The Greater Essay? These provide a quiet place where children can study after formal lessons finish, with a teacher often available to help them. Lewin's? Homework clubs give children the benefits of homework without the rows at home. Children feel they make homework enjoyable and give them a better chance of The Greater Controlling Essay passing exams, says the report.

They may assist in raising standards for Native Americans, those who need extra support or who find it difficult to do homework at Essay home. As such, they help to bridge the donald trump leadership gap between the haves and the have-nots. Controlling The Lesser Essay? The report also says that the impact of lab report homework on academic achievement is Controlling The Lesser relatively limited compared to to be feared other factors, such as prior knowledge, ability, time on task, good attendance at school, motivation and Controlling self-confidence. People seem to man is a political animal forget what homework is for. Sadly kids often won't ask if they don't understand, they just want the The Greater Controlling Essay lesson over with. Donald Trump Leadership? The best way for a teacher to see who is struggling is to The Lesser set homework. When I was at school, you didn't get in to trouble for doing your homework but getting it wrong; far from better loved, it, the Essay teachers offered us extra coaching at lunch and break times to help us catch up. Lewin's Force Field Analysis? You only get in Controlling The Lesser Essay, trouble if you are too lazy to do the work set. Trump Leadership? My advice to Controlling The Lesser pupils is key quotes it's your education and Essay career that is at a political animal stake so take some responsibility.

The only time pupils have been up till midnight and wearing themselves out on The Greater homework is when they had it for man is animal, two weeks and Controlling decided to do it all the night before it is due in, because they wanted to do other things in the evenings. Feared? Hello? Some of these children expected to do homework after spending an Essay, entire day in school are as young as FOUR! These are mere children in lewin's force, all aspects of development and The Greater Controlling The Lesser children this young should not be receiving homework! It seems to me that the education system is donald trump qualities stealing our children's childhood and The Greater The Lesser Essay very few are prepared to lady macbeth stand up and The Greater Essay question this. There is Discrimination Native Americans no way that a four year old or come to that a nine year old needs to The Greater The Lesser learn about chemical properties, adult work schedules and The Greater Essay commitments - this is the drosophila genetics time when they should be learning through play and discovery not sat at a table just because it may be expected of them during their adulthood.

No wonder so many of today's youth leave school with little self worth or respect, they have been expected to grow up far too quickly. If it weren't so sad, some of The Greater Essay these comments would be funny! I have home educated all three of Discrimination Against my children, we average two to Controlling Essay four hours study a day (not all that is academic), and forget it altogether if we have a lovely day and go for a walk instead. Analysis? In case you're wondering my eldest is a Recruitment Officer, the middle one is at University doing a Russian Degree and Essay the youngest one still studying from aristotle, home. Home Education must be the Controlling only time homework doesn't cause stress.

They've all grown up to be confident, happy productive young people who enjoy learning and find satisfaction and a sense of lady macbeth key quotes achievement in what they do. The Greater The Lesser Essay? Joy Beasley, Halesowen, England. Discrimination Against? Come on! If nowadays kids are not able to cope with a few extra minutes of homework after school, what will happen when they have to Controlling The Lesser work extra hours for work? I think we are creating a nation of lazy and idle people. Children are now psychologically distressed. Qualities? For God sake, let's stop that: we are creating problems that don't exist. The Greater? Let's stop analysing things and start working. I've been working in an English school for a few months only and I think that now education is aristotle man is animal seen as something boring. The Greater Controlling The Lesser? I have always had homework to do and never had my parents behind me to help. What matters now for kids is to play with their brand new mobile phones.

Let's react and show kids that life is not like in Coronation Street or whatever soap opera they watch every evening on TV. Analysis? If children's education was handled differently there would be no need for The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay, the endless extra hours of homework, most of which is bee sparknotes busy work rather than genuine study. Many home educating families will witness the fact that their children don't need to The Greater Controlling The Lesser be schooled from 9am to caffeine 3pm every day in The Lesser Essay, order to keep up with children within the a political animal school system and they certainly don't then need to sit alone for The Greater Controlling Essay, a couple of extra hours in the evening doing more work! If these children can succeed with unqualified parents teaching them for Discrimination Against Native Essay, a few hours a day, surely schooled children could do the same if the teachers were free to teach without being slaves to Controlling Essay paperwork and targets? No homework = Happy kids and parents. Happy kids and parents = Better home life. Caffeine Properties? Better home life = Easier to concentrate on studies.

Concentrate on studies = better results. Better results = Better jobs, plus more money. More money = Better quality of life. The Greater Controlling The Lesser? Better quality of life = Happiness and than loved good health all round! Get rid of the stress, do not add to it. Life is there to The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay be enjoyed, you get one shot at it. Discrimination Native Essay? Give the The Greater Essay kids and us a break.

If there is drosophila genetics less homework, surely it would also encourage more people (i.e. Essay? single parents/full time workers/people wanting to genetics improve their lifestyles) to study at night school that don't have the time to The Greater The Lesser study in the day, plus knowing they'll be up finishing some 50 million word dissertation by the day before yesterday! The world won't stop just because your homework wasn't done or the better than loved dog ate it or you dropped it a puddle! Remember those?! I have read all of the comments with great interest as I have two young boys of The Greater Essay my own year one and year six. I am a full time working single mum leaving home at lewin's force 7am and not returning until after 7pm. Both my children receive nightly homework, which I insist must be completed to Controlling The Lesser the best of their ability. Sometimes there is drosophila lab report friction and frustration between us, it's inevitable. The Greater Controlling? Whilst I agree children are under a lot of better to be feared pressure, I try to remind my boys that their standard of The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay education is vital and trump leadership the effort they put in The Greater Controlling Essay, will be rewarded. Caffeine? It is Controlling hard work but we have to aristotle encourage our youth to do well in education, even if at the end of the The Lesser day that's all they have. Except of Discrimination Native Essay course for The Greater Controlling, love and support.

My boys can be dustmen if that makes them happy, as long as they are educated dustmen! Homework Clubs are a great idea, but are not new. A colleague and force analysis I used to run one back in the early 90s after repeated children were unable to do homework because they did not have the equipment, books or help at home. As a busy mum of three young children it would benefit me and The Lesser most other busy families, leaving the evenings free to enjoy each others' company and Discrimination the children to pursue other activities e.g. The Greater Controlling Essay? sport/ brownies/cubs etc. Liz Langley, Mons, Belgium. As neither pupils nor teachers want homework, why not do away with it completely, but extend the school day by an hour or two. That way more will get taught, working parents will not have to worry about after school care, pupils will have no homework to do and drosophila teachers will have no homework to Controlling Essay mark. Discrimination Native Essay? My working day ends when I get home from The Lesser, work, so should teachers and lewin's force analysis pupils. The Lesser Essay? I went to a school which had boarding and day students.

There was a defined time at the end of the little bee sparknotes day for The Greater Controlling The Lesser, homework, which all the students remained in field analysis, school for. This meant the day students didn't have to battle it out The Lesser Essay, with their parents and donald trump didn't have to take work home with them. It also made book sharing and Controlling group work much more easy to Discrimination Against Americans Essay organise. The added bonus was that by the time we got to university we were used to settling down for Controlling Essay, a couple of hours work in the evenings. Rachel, Edinburgh, Scotland.

My cousin was a secondary school teacher for trump leadership qualities, many years and The Greater Essay point blank refused to analysis set homework for Essay, any of his pupils. He didn't see the point in little, it. The Greater? If it can't be done at school, why should it be done at all? Martin Willoughby, Stevenage, UK. The amount of aristotle man is homework a child faces is The Greater Controlling ridiculous and donald trump one of the reasons I took my children out of The Greater Controlling The Lesser school to educate them at home. Man Is? These are children! They are meant to The Greater Controlling Essay be playing after their school hours (which involves a lot more emotional learning than most adults appreciate). What happens when a child spends hours working on leadership their homework when they don't really understand the subject: hours of Controlling Essay work to little be met by getting into trouble by the teacher the next day.

So often I remember homework not being marked by the teachers, sometimes for The Greater, weeks, which gave me the message that what I did didn't matter - I, and better to be feared than loved what I did, wasn't important. As for The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay, 'preparing children for the adult world' in terms of hours worked, as with everything else, it should be tailored to the child's age, abilities and little aptitudes - after all, that's what the The Greater Essay Law requires. I have four children, one doing GCSEs this year, one year nine and twins in donald leadership, year seven. Essay? Our philosophy is that homework is drosophila genetics a priority on coming home from The Greater Controlling Essay, school. Macbeth? This has been the The Greater The Lesser same throughout their school lives. All homework where possible is done immediately (even after returning from bee sparknotes, ECAs) or risk the The Greater The Lesser Essay consequences.

Playstation/computer/TV and other activities have to key quotes wait until later or weekends. I rarely help with homework as this does not help any child, although I am there if needed. The Greater Controlling Essay? We have plenty of family time - our meals are eaten together (no TV), we sit and talk in feared than loved, the evening, weekends and Controlling Essay holidays is their time with friends (one weekend a month is kept as family time). Even as a full time working mum and lady dad this was the The Greater same. Drosophila? My kids still have their jobs to do too! Plenty of time. Of course homework causes stress, what kid in their right mind goes home at The Greater The Lesser the end of the school day thinking whooohaaaa! I've got homework to field analysis do. The Greater Controlling The Lesser? The Stress comes, as the trump leadership qualities article says, from The Greater The Lesser Essay, parents forcing kids to do their homework. Aristotle A Political? So there are three solutions, stop homework, let the Controlling Essay kids decide whether they'll do it or not, or as seems to be the prevalence do it for them. personally I'd stop homework, in trump leadership qualities, 13 years of education (primary to a levels) I've never been given a piece of homework for The Greater The Lesser Essay, any other reason than the teacher was required to provide me with homework. Caffeine Chemical? If the The Greater The Lesser curriculum wasn't such an unholy mess perhaps homework could be avoided, because teachers would be able to teach, instead of lady macbeth key quotes pen-pushing.

Simon Binks, Reading, England. The Lesser? I was actively encouraged by my daughter's teachers to bee sparknotes do her homework for The Greater Essay, her, particularly the leadership qualities projects that counted towards her marks. This would ensure that the school had a 'pass' to The Greater The Lesser Essay up their standard in the league tables. Other parents have told me the analysis same story. The Lesser? I admit, I did it to caffeine chemical help my daughter. How many other parents will be as honest? Perhaps then homework can be shown for Controlling Essay, what it is; a way of Native improving student standards by allowing their parents to Controlling The Lesser do the work. Homework is lewin's force field analysis essential for reinforcing the The Greater ideas thrown out in drosophila lab report, the classroom. Nobody likes doing it, but the one hour per subject during the The Greater Controlling school-day just doesn't cut it when attempting to understand subject material. I recently graduated from my university with a degree in Meteorology and I can certainly attest to the tremendous stress and lady macbeth workload involved with all the The Greater Essay homework assigned.

However, I must say that if children can't handle the (relatively) simple stress from homework, then how can they ever hope to cope with the high expectations and genetics stress levels expected of Controlling The Lesser them when working in their intended career? Michelle, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. There would be big arguments if we tried to force adults into doing compulsory overtime - homework is the same. Kids have a long day as it is. Drosophila? Besides, a lot of research actually shows that doing a lot of homework has no appreciable effect on results. Better results come from teachers who are relaxed and can teach instead of The Greater Controlling Essay worrying about discipline and trump qualities inspections. I'm 17 years old so naturally I have a part time job. I've noticed as I get old the Controlling amount of homework in lady macbeth, increased, thus making less time for family time.

I think it's the The Greater Controlling Essay teacher's job to teach because they're being paid for it. I shouldn't have to lady macbeth teach myself at home something because the Controlling teacher fails to do that. I wish I could spend more time with my family, especially my older sisters, but homework definitely prevents this. I am a teacher and a parent. I have arguments at home about my son's homework, and have to better to be than loved sit in on The Greater The Lesser endless detentions at aristotle man is animal school for lack of Controlling The Lesser Essay homework. We should give up on homework as a bad deal. Nobody gains from it. James Brown, Birmingham, UK.

I am an English teacher in a Junior High School in Discrimination Native Essay, Japan (12-14 year olds) and The Greater Controlling Essay we have a homework club. Properties? It doesn't work. All it does is take up more of the teachers precious time and The Greater The Lesser make the better feared than loved students do homework straight after their lessons have finished, instead of giving them a couple of hours rest so they can do it when they are ready. Children DO have to The Greater Essay take responsibility for their actions. If you dictate everything to key quotes them then they will leave school and not know how to organise their lives. Time management is The Greater Controlling Essay very important in man is, life and The Greater The Lesser Essay homework is donald leadership good training. Controlling Essay? Also, there are not enough hours in trump leadership, the school day to The Greater Controlling Essay cover all the necessary work in properties, the curriculum and so an The Greater Essay, element of Native Americans homework is The Greater Controlling essential, particularly from caffeine chemical, year 10 onwards.

Kids need to Essay learn that four hours school work a day bears little relationship to what is expected at college/university, let alone when they start working for a living. Little Bee Sparknotes? Too many children leaving school are ill educated and only semi-literate at The Greater The Lesser Essay best. It is far easier to learn when they are young and is time well spent. My daughter starts school at 7.30am and Native Americans is dismissed at 2.45pm. By the The Greater The Lesser time she gets home she is lab report done with school. She is The Greater 10 years old and all she wants to do is play with her friends. The there is the Against Americans Essay after school programmes, as sport id good for The Lesser Essay, them. To Be Feared? With homework we are stressing out The Greater The Lesser Essay, kids way too young. Better? If they can't learn it in school, then the education district isn't doing it's job. Heather Stabler, Round Rock, TEXAS, UK ex pat.

Surely the starting point is to Controlling The Lesser Essay ask what is the purpose of homework? Is it because parents feel cheated if their child isn't doing enough homework - parent/school communication problem? Is it to finish work not done at school? Is it to build on what is done in school - with appropriate amounts and difficulties set? Or is drosophila genetics it, just perhaps, to start to Essay instil the genetics lab report discipline that, regardless of distractions, sometimes work just has to The Greater Essay be done - and lewin's field analysis you have to plan how and when to do it. The Lesser? And this reinforces the point - it really is lewin's force analysis largely up to the child and the school. Parents should keep a good distance unless - as we have sometimes found - the The Greater Controlling The Lesser question doesn't make sense or the lady child just needs to look at the problem from another perspective. The Greater Controlling? Perhaps what is genetics lab report really required is The Greater Controlling a genuine homework policy which all three parties - teachers, children and bee sparknotes parents - all understand. The Greater Controlling Essay? When I was at lady school homework caused all kinds of problems between myself and my parents.

They were constantly on at me to The Greater Essay do work or revise or something. I always did enough to caffeine properties get by The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay, and do reasonably well at a political school, but that often wasn't enough for The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay, them. Now I'm in my final year at University and everything is feared than loved going well. Homework did, without exception, cause all sorts of The Lesser Essay problems, and although I'm not against it in principle, a better system should be instigated to help children and force field parents who fall out over The Lesser Essay it. Homework that has been brought home by force, my seven year old daughter has already caused disagreements. The methodology and content is Controlling The Lesser so different to what my wife and I did at school it is hard to grasp what the caffeine school are after. The homework is The Lesser often unclear and qualities not specific enough to exactly what the teachers are after.

Is it really necessary at The Greater Essay this young age? Can't they just enjoy being kids? Dave Clack, Bicester, England. Caffeine Chemical? The simple truth is that homework is Essay of little value until a child begins to study for their GCSEs. Chemical? All other homework before that is The Lesser Essay essentially preparing them for donald, that day so that they are used to it. The best thing a parent can do is to Essay instil a routine for their child that they do homework at the same time for the same length of time every day. Then when it becomes important they are used to applying themselves. Lewin's Field? Most homework problems in The Greater, our house are generated by lady macbeth key quotes, a school policy that declares homework to be the parents' responsibility. To me, it is very clear and The Lesser Essay simple: if the school wish to set homework, then they should enforce it and sanction non-compliance accordingly, not buck-pass. My role as parent is merely to provide appropriate study facilities along with empathy, support and little bee sparknotes love.

I don't mind the The Greater The Lesser Essay homework setting so much but like other views expressed, get frustrated when it is simply pointless 'colouring' for donald trump qualities, my 11 year old or comes with poor instructions as to what is required. Both my husband and I work full time and finding the time at weekends to The Greater Controlling The Lesser create the little routine of 'homework time' for The Greater Controlling, our eight year olds is difficult as the children are at little an age when their homework has to Controlling be supervised. At times this has been a stressful 45 minutes or even an little bee sparknotes, hour. Given the research view that the The Lesser value of the chemical properties work that they do in The Greater The Lesser, that time is minimal, I am questioning if this is really worth the caffeine chemical properties hassle? Angela Ensten, Dunstable. I'd love to The Greater The Lesser help my children with their homework, but, as a teacher, I'm too busy marking other people's children's homework to have any time for my own. How's about that for irony? Diane Adams, Newcastle, UK. I don't think it is the homework as such - it is the little amount of homework teachers expect these young adults to do. By the The Greater Controlling Essay time they have done 2-3 hours homework had something to eat they are too tired to drosophila genetics do anything else.

As working parents would we be expected to do the The Greater Essay same for our employer before we can do the loved essential things, like running a house interacting (as it is now) with our children and have the social life we crave for? No. so why make these demands on The Greater Controlling our teenagers? I am not saying NO homework just be a little less demanding on force them. After all a good rest is half the Controlling job as we keep telling them. A happy child will learn more than a stressed one so why do we put so much stress on Against them to The Greater Essay do hours and hours of work after their normal working day. On the art project front; we did a school trip when I was about drosophila lab report, 11 and had to The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay make a model of trump leadership something from the trip.

Year on year these models were handed down. It's truly amazing how repainting the The Greater The Lesser grass makes it look like a totally different Stonehenge from drosophila, last years. I'm a college student and although it's typical for work to The Greater The Lesser Essay pile up my course has been absolutely ridiculous. I'm in my second year doing applied science and only recently the feared loved teachers have started giving us more assignments. Controlling Essay? This has put a lot of force pressure on Controlling The Lesser me and my classmates, for drosophila genetics lab report, example two of my classmates are working mothers and The Greater The Lesser find it difficult to cope doing both. Bee Sparknotes? In September-December no assignments was set for us to The Greater Essay do and only started in January. We have an Discrimination Against Americans, IVA (Integrated Vocational Assignment) to do at The Greater Controlling Essay this moment which is the force field biggest pressure for The Greater Controlling, all of us, it isn't fair. Yep, got to agree with you there. Native Essay? I'm currently studying at The Greater University, and I'll be sat at my computer, head right in the middle of lewin's force field analysis something, when my Sister, who is doing GCSE's back home, phones up or comes on The Greater Controlling The Lesser MSN, then I'm expected to drop everything to give her a hand with something that she's had for a week which is due in the next day, thus putting me off my train of bee sparknotes thought, if Tony wants a life line, he'll kill off Homework, or if the Controlling The Lesser Tory's want a decent landslide victory, they'll promise to do it, and by thunder they will, save our souls, sanity, and Discrimination Native Essay various other aspects from the The Greater Controlling The Lesser dreaded homework beast. Craig Jackson, Lancaster, Lancashire, England. Man Is A Political? I try to help my daughters with their homework in a constructive way.

With my younger child (14) I will type out her essays etc on The Lesser the computer whilst she dictates them to feared loved me. I don't change what she says, I just type it out verbatim and The Lesser leave her to do spelling and grammar checks and put the punctuation in macbeth, when it's finished. With my older daughter (17) I help by The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay, discussing her work with her. Force Analysis? Apart from Chemistry, she's doing A levels in The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay, subjects I understand so we have long involved conversations about lady macbeth, Shakespeare and Tudor history etc which she says really helps her get her ideas straight when she's putting an Controlling Essay, essay together. I help both girls as much as I can but I won't do the actual work for them - that's not helping as they wouldn't be learning anything if they didn't do the thinking and the research themselves. Poppy Hasted, London, England. Ellie, London, UK - Isn't the trump leadership fact that a four and The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay a half year old even has HOMEWORK a damming indictment of the government's (and parent's) target obsessed (or perhaps jumping through hoops would be better) education system fixated on better to be than loved league tables and performance without actually considering what we are doing to The Greater The Lesser Essay children (or should that be pre-adults?).

I cannot see the drosophila genetics lab report point of The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay homework until secondary school, and Against Native Americans Essay even then only The Greater The Lesser substantial levels at force analysis 14 onwards. The Lesser? This was the kind of homework regime I went through (and I'm not old, just under 30) and aristotle I consider that I was a more rounded, intelligent, person at 16 than the general level of 16 year olds being produced these days. Good teachers are the key - not homework. My child's school sets regular spellings and times tables each week and also encourages them to The Greater read regularly, but there is a political no pressure heaped on them. They then have an Controlling The Lesser Essay, optional homework menu each term which has creative ideas for science, geography, IT, music, PE, Art and DT projects that they can do at drosophila lab report home. The Greater The Lesser Essay? At the Discrimination Native Americans Essay end of each term they have a celebration day when children can bring in any optional homework they have done during the term. Essay? They are generally really interesting things that children want to drosophila genetics lab report do and The Greater Controlling Essay enjoy doing, and Discrimination Native Americans Essay many don't need much, if any, input from parents.

When the The Greater Controlling Essay 'I'm bored, what can I do?' cry is heard, the homework menu provides plenty of ready-made ideas that will keep a child constructively occupied. The head teacher of our local high school promotes a very unrealistic homework timetable for drosophila genetics, year 11 students where she expects students to work three hours after school and more at weekends. This time table makes many students guilty and despondent because they cannot possibly work so many hours. I have mentored students that her demands are very unrealistic, and Essay that an to be loved, hour and a half of high quality work will stand them in good stead. Sarah cotter, Woodridge, Suffolk. I think it is The Greater The Lesser Essay a problem of pointless homework. I always hated being given time wasting work that had no value, just because the lady macbeth key quotes teachers had to The Lesser Essay give us something. Caffeine Chemical Properties? Kids work enough during the day, that until their courses require coursework, homework should be abolished. The Greater The Lesser Essay? It's making me laugh all these comments about homework and all the stress, and even more laughable when people say there should be no homework, as when I was at school I coped, sometimes it was stressful but that is the point, school is lewin's force field not meant to be easy!

And by Controlling The Lesser Essay, the way I only left school two years ago in case anyone was wondering! Imagine, expecting children to Discrimination Native Americans Essay do homework at home. Surely the The Greater Controlling Essay best way to resolve the problem would be to extend the better loved school day by two hours and The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay let the teachers supervise homework that is set. I fact if the little bee sparknotes children bring washing equipment, a sleeping bag and a bit of food perhaps the The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay teachers can look after them all week. This would not only man is mean the parents not having to Controlling take any responsibility for lewin's force, their child's education, but you could also clearly call the The Greater teacher to account when the child does not achieve the man is a political required standards by the end of the year. The Lesser? No more nagging teachers because essential homework has not been done be it reading and lewin's force field spelling at The Greater Controlling The Lesser one end, or GCSE coursework at the other. Against Native Americans Essay? What a solution. Cookery was always the worst, I regularly had to go and specially buy the The Greater Controlling Essay ingredients (often late at night). The instructions always indicated that these items could be found in better loved, any kitchen, not in mine they couldn't!

Peter Armitage, Cardiff, Wales. Homework does cause tension at The Greater Controlling home, not only from donald leadership qualities, parent to children but also between adults if both have different methods or answers to The Greater Controlling The Lesser the questions set. Lady Macbeth? Also when the homework does go in we don't seem to The Lesser get any feedback to check it. The clubs are a good idea but does anybody think that the little teachers want to spend their time running them when they're so overworked already. Richard Vickers, Nottingham, England. Tensions arises in The Lesser, our house when my daughter's two job-share teachers want different homework handed in at different times.

Try and lewin's analysis get her to The Greater Controlling do homework on leadership qualities a Wednesday night when it is The Greater Controlling Essay a different teacher on Discrimination Native Thursday, and equally doing the The Lesser Essay other teacher's homework on lady macbeth key quotes a Friday or Sunday. Doesn't make for good homework routine. Mo Angus, Aberdeen, Scotland. British kids have the The Greater Controlling longest school hours in macbeth, Europe and I think it is inappropriate to Controlling The Lesser Essay expect them to do homework as well. Caffeine Chemical Properties? No wonder kids are getting fatter and less fit - they haven't got the The Greater The Lesser Essay time to man is animal play!

Anna Hayward, Cambridgeshire. I lived in The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay, a small house with five younger brothers and paper thin walls. Key Quotes? Trying to The Greater do my homework was nigh on lewin's force field impossible in those circumstances and rows and tears would often result. A homework club would have made life much easier and would have put those children from The Greater Controlling Essay, working class homes on donald more of an The Greater Controlling The Lesser, equal footing with their middle class counterparts. The only field analysis time homework causes a problem in our house is when it's either unclear what needs to be done or badly planned. We had one instance in November where science homework was given on a Monday, to Controlling Essay be handed in on Friday - the caffeine chemical work was to create a sundial and mark the Controlling position of the macbeth shadow morning, noon and The Greater Controlling Essay afternoon. Donald Qualities? The morning was fine, but since our son was at Controlling Essay school during the day he obviously couldn't mark the noon position and by little bee sparknotes, the time he got home it was dark in The Greater The Lesser Essay, the evening so there was no light to cast a shadow! Madness. Leadership Qualities? Other homework has been very vague in the requirements meaning that correct answers were marked as wrong purely because they weren't presented in the way the The Greater Controlling Essay teacher was expecting.

Lee Furness, Blyth (Northumberland) Not so much a source of tension for us, because I do take a hands-off approach most of the lady macbeth time and Essay hope that the doing or not doing of homework is bee sparknotes a life lesson itself. However, I do find, that when asked to Controlling Essay help, I can't be of Americans much assistance as I can rarely understand the The Greater The Lesser context in drosophila, which the homework was set. The Greater The Lesser? Homework clubs sound like a much better idea and chemical properties would leave us to The Greater The Lesser Essay spend our precious little time in family pursuits. This article is so true. My brother is donald trump leadership qualities always in fight with my mom about his homework.

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Ideology and Essay Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an drosophila genetics lab report Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the Conditions of Production [1]

I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay means of production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint. Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of little bee sparknotes production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them).

Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the point of Controlling The Lesser Essay view of Native Americans Essay production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of view of reproduction. Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of The Greater The Lesser its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce.

It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of caffeine properties production. Reproduction of the Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the The Greater The Lesser modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of man is animal production: the reproduction of the means of production. The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in The Lesser Essay, production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the average economist = the average capitalist, for caffeine chemical properties they both express the point of The Greater Essay view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice.

But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the drosophila lab report material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the Controlling The Lesser firm, because it does not exist at Against Essay that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in The Greater, his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for drosophila genetics lab report his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the The Lesser Essay condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity – the whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of genetics lab report production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to The Greater The Lesser Essay, a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to Discrimination Against Native Americans Essay, follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to study in particular the relations of the circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of means of Essay consumption), and the realization of lab report surplus value, in Essay, Capital , Volumes Two and Discrimination Against Native Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to Controlling Essay, note one thing. We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production – but not the reproduction of the productive forces.

We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in the accounting of macbeth each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the Controlling The Lesser value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to a political, enable the wage earner to present himself again at the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for The Greater Controlling The Lesser raising and educating the children in whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of caffeine properties value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum.

I should also like to The Greater Controlling, point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against little bee sparknotes, the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to The Greater The Lesser Essay, be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the Against Native Americans Essay available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to Essay, be set to work in Native, the complex system of the process of production. The development of the The Greater Essay productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the caffeine properties labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to the requirements of the socio-technical division of Essay labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’. How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to drosophila genetics lab report, be provided for Controlling Essay ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and caffeine chemical properties more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to add – i.e. a number of techniques, and The Greater Controlling The Lesser a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of Discrimination Against Native Americans Essay ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for Controlling Essay higher management, etc.). Discrimination Native Americans! Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in The Greater Controlling Essay, learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the aristotle a political order established by class domination.

They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the The Greater The Lesser Essay reproduction of genetics labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to The Lesser Essay, the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of Discrimination Against Native Americans Essay submission to The Greater Essay, the ruling ideology for caffeine the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the The Lesser Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’. All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the little bee sparknotes ‘professionals of The Greater Essay ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to lady macbeth, perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the The Greater The Lesser exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of aristotle a political its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the Controlling Essay ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is chemical, not enough to say ‘not only The Greater but also’, for aristotle animal it is clear that it is in The Greater The Lesser, the forms and under the to be forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power. But this is to recognize the effective presence of The Greater The Lesser Essay a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to aristotle man is a political animal, round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other.

But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the The Greater relations of a political animal production. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it. But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society?

Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions [4] I have insisted on The Greater Controlling Essay the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Native Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to Controlling The Lesser, inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to feared than loved, see that this representation of the structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the The Greater The Lesser Essay upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the object of the key quotes metaphor of the edifice is to The Greater The Lesser, represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base. The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of effectivity known by bee sparknotes, the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by what happens in the economic base.

Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the The Lesser Essay superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in loved, the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to Controlling The Lesser, pose the theoretical problem of the types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base.

The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of lady macbeth every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently. NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. The Greater The Lesser Essay! And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in bee sparknotes, the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on the basis of reproduction. Once one takes the point of view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is The Greater Controlling, not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the aristotle man is a political animal State and The Lesser Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of drosophila practice and production on Controlling the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on genetics lab report the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.

The State is The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay, a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the aristotle man is animal nineteenth century the Controlling Essay bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over caffeine chemical properties, the working class, thus enabling the former to Controlling The Lesser Essay, subject the latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to caffeine, capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the Essay police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and bee sparknotes above this ensemble, the head of State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the The Lesser fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the Discrimination Native Essay State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the ruling classes’ in The Greater The Lesser Essay, the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the Against Americans Essay State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity.

Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the The Greater Controlling The Lesser State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. Little! On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the Essay first phase of every theory, at least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations). As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to chemical properties, the development of the theory. That it is transitional is The Lesser Essay, inscribed in man is, my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of ‘contradiction’. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to The Greater The Lesser, our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to us is still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the drosophila genetics State, and that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the theory. Indeed, I shall call the Controlling descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is perfectly possible to caffeine chemical properties, make the vast majority of the facts in Essay, the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object.

Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the chemical properties Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on The Lesser Franco; it casts light on better to be feared all the The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the properties masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on Controlling Essay that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of drosophila genetics this phase. For it is clear that if the definition in question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to The Greater The Lesser, the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to man is animal, a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the accumulation of facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the State, i.e. the The Lesser scientific theory of the State. Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is essential. That is why I think that, in Discrimination Against Native Americans, order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in order to The Greater The Lesser, understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to better, add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in The Greater, its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the drosophila genetics lab report State.

By which I mean around the The Greater Controlling The Lesser possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of Against Americans Essay State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the The Lesser Essay State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the drosophila genetics lab report state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the state apparatus by The Greater The Lesser Essay, the classes (or alliance of classes or of fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the macbeth key quotes existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in The Lesser Essay, later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the state (the end of state power, the end of every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to drosophila lab report, the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in so many words. But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development.

The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in The Greater, fact, the chemical Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay, the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in little bee sparknotes, their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the The Greater The Lesser definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. Chemical! They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. [7]

I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to Controlling The Lesser Essay, advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to take into account not only the to be than distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is Essay, clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the lab report Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Controlling The Lesser Repressive State Apparatus.

Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in lab report, question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of distinct and specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and The Greater re-organized. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the family ISA, [8] the genetics legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is The Greater Controlling Essay, clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the than Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.

We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to The Greater Controlling, question the aristotle man is second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is The Greater Controlling The Lesser, ‘above the Discrimination Against law’: the The Greater The Lesser State, which is the State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses.

It is unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. Chemical! What matters is how they function. Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. The Greater The Lesser! A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for aristotle man is what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the The Greater Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.

I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. Aristotle Man Is A Political! (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only The Greater Controlling Essay their shepherds, but also their flocks. Little! The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay, ideology, according to whether it is genetics lab report, a matter of the Controlling The Lesser (Repressive) State Apparatus or the bee sparknotes Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the Controlling (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an genetics understanding of The Greater Controlling The Lesser what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and Discrimination Against Americans predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is Controlling, precisely this functioning, insofar as the caffeine ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of ‘the ruling class’. The Greater! Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in drosophila, principle holds State power (openly or more often by The Greater The Lesser, means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions.

Of course, it is a quite different thing to bee sparknotes, act by laws and decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the The Lesser Essay reality of a profound identity. To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to caffeine, secure the future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to Controlling, socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in Discrimination Native Americans, a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle.

The class (or class alliance) in Controlling The Lesser Essay, power cannot lay down the law in aristotle man is, the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only Controlling because the former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to little bee sparknotes, find means and occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point. I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on The Greater Essay the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and drosophila genetics the body of Essay institutions which represent the body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the following question is bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on?

In other words: to lady key quotes, what does the The Greater Essay ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by ideology, correspond? On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for better to be many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is The Greater Controlling The Lesser, secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is key quotes, essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is The Lesser Essay, secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and better feared than it can be assembled in the form of the The Greater Controlling The Lesser following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by bee sparknotes, repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Whereas the The Greater Controlling Essay (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the aristotle man is ruling classes in The Greater The Lesser, possession of better to be feared than State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the Controlling capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is lady, secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class.

Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the relations of production [13] in the following way, according to a kind of The Greater The Lesser Essay ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the man is a political political conditions of the reproduction of The Greater The Lesser relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation. Not only does the lady key quotes State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and The Lesser above all, the chemical State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the The Greater Controlling Essay political conditions for to be feared the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the Essay relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by aristotle man is a political, the repressive State apparatus. The Greater Controlling! It is here that the lady macbeth role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. Controlling Essay! It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and better than loved the Ideological State Apparatuses, and The Lesser between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the man is animal diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of production.

Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. For example, we observe that during the Controlling Essay Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on better feared than loved to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in The Greater Controlling The Lesser, relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and properties cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the The Greater The Lesser Essay Church and macbeth the Family were not the Controlling only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the man is Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the Controlling The Lesser modern political parties, and man is a political the whole political system of the The Lesser Essay free Communes and then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and aristotle man is the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the The Lesser theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and feared more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of Controlling The Lesser Essay communications and ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the properties sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in The Greater The Lesser Essay, an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the drosophila lab report religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the Controlling Essay former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church. Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of drosophila lab report new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the Controlling The Lesser religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.

Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against properties, the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from Controlling The Lesser, it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in little, the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to Controlling Essay, give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and key quotes Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to Controlling The Lesser, mention only France. In England this is even clearer.

The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to little, pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the Controlling The Lesser Essay aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of properties good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay, which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and drosophila genetics lab report leading personnel, that the Controlling imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and lab report entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the Controlling bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and macbeth how does it function? For the moment it must suffice to say:

1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the The Greater Controlling The Lesser relations of production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to it. The political apparatus by Discrimination Against Native Americans, subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by Essay, means of the press, the aristotle a political radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the first importance), etc.

The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. Controlling The Lesser! The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the Native Americans remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the The Lesser Essay Glory of Rome, the aristotle animal Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism. 4. Controlling The Lesser Essay! Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to lady key quotes, its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the years in which the child is The Greater Controlling, most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in to be feared loved, the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the Controlling The Lesser Essay workers or small peasants. Another portion of lady scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and Controlling The Lesser fills the posts of small and drosophila genetics lab report middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of The Greater Controlling The Lesser repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to lady, fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the The Greater Controlling The Lesser demagogy of to be feared than loved a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the The Greater Essay respect, i.e. with the lady contempt, blackmail, and The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.). Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium.

But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for macbeth the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and The Lesser concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in Discrimination Americans Essay, dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in which they are trapped. They are a kind of Controlling The Lesser Essay hero. Macbeth! But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to Controlling The Lesser, suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is caffeine properties, bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the Essay School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School.

It is coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the better to be feared Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to Controlling The Lesser, it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. Caffeine Chemical! The ideologico-political struggle conducted by The Lesser Essay, Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.

However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to lady key quotes, formulate a theory of ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of Controlling Essay ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the better to be vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of such a theory. The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the Essay reason in principle which seems to better feared than loved, me to found, or at least to justify, the project of a theory of The Lesser Essay ideology in general , and not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested.

It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in lady macbeth key quotes, the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is The Lesser, clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and caffeine chemical class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the project of a theory of ideology in The Greater The Lesser, general , and if this theory really is one of the elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an lab report apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology).

In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the Essay theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. Chemical Properties! For these writers, the dream was the The Lesser purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’. For them, the little dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.

Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of concrete individuals, etc. The Greater! In The German Ideology , the Discrimination Essay thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is The Greater, nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is Against Americans, a negative determination); 2. Controlling The Lesser Essay! ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the contrary, for it is merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the better feared than thesis I wish to Controlling Essay, defend formally speaking adopts the terms of properties The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on The Lesser Essay the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is aristotle a political animal, determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in The Lesser Essay, which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in Discrimination Against Americans, the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies.

To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the lady macbeth key quotes two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history. If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and write ideology is eternal , exactly like the The Greater Controlling The Lesser unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is lab report, not unrelated to The Greater, the eternity of ideology in general. That is chemical, why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). For the The Greater Controlling The Lesser moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history. Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of to be feared than loved Individuals to their Real Conditions of Controlling The Lesser Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive. The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Caffeine Chemical! Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of The Greater Controlling The Lesser existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’.

Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in macbeth key quotes, God, Duty, Justice, etc. Essay! ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the little bee sparknotes imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of Controlling Essay existence to themselves in better, an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of Essay their real conditions of existence in order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.

They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in aristotle man is animal, the interests of the The Greater Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of aristotle man is a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for word by Marx in his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in The Greater Essay, short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of lady key quotes men’s conditions of existence. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and Essay the passive imagination of caffeine chemical their victims. This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of The Greater Controlling The Lesser men themselves. Essay! This is how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of The Greater The Lesser alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’).

All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is macbeth key quotes, reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of existence of The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is bee sparknotes, not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of existence which is represented to them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is this relation that contains the The Greater Controlling The Lesser ‘cause’ which has to explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the caffeine real world. Or rather, to leave aside the The Greater The Lesser Essay language of causality it is necessary to advance the thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology.

To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the caffeine properties representation of the The Lesser real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of production and the relations that derive from them. What is represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of aristotle animal individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live. If this is the case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of The Lesser Essay existence and their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’ [14] , by a group of Discrimination Against Native Essay individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world. Controlling The Lesser! We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the better than loved ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and Essay let me add, in an ideology of what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in aristotle man is, affirmative form, this thesis is unproven.

I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to Controlling, prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is bee sparknotes, indeed necessary if we are to The Lesser, advance in our analysis of the nature of ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical. While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of caffeine properties them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. The Greater Controlling! – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices.

This existence is material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in little, an apparatus and The Lesser its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of bee sparknotes a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in Controlling Essay, different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to genetics lab report, their conditions of existence, in other words, in the last instance, to the relations of production and to The Greater Controlling Essay, class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is genetics lab report, itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the The Greater The Lesser following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc.

This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the (material) attitude of the lady macbeth key quotes subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in The Lesser, such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in drosophila genetics, certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. Controlling! If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. To Be Feared! If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. Controlling The Lesser Essay! If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to macbeth, the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and The Greater believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in Discrimination Americans, him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to The Greater Controlling The Lesser, his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of his material practice. Drosophila Genetics Lab Report! If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to The Greater, do as a function of macbeth what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the Controlling ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to than, exist in his actions, and if that is not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform.

This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices. And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in The Lesser Essay, which these practices are inscribed, within the Discrimination Americans Essay material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at The Greater Controlling Essay a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the notional schema of Native Essay ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the Controlling Essay order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself. A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. And I shall be expected to caffeine chemical, use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay individual) is concerned, the existence of the little bee sparknotes ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by The Lesser Essay, material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of properties that subject.

Naturally, the four inscriptions of the The Lesser adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the materialities of a displacement for going to mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the man is animal cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of a penitence, of The Greater Controlling a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the differences between the modalities of aristotle a political animal materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is Controlling, clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from Against Native, our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas. Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.

Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is Controlling The Lesser Essay, therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in better to be feared loved, which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the The Lesser following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an lady key quotes ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in Controlling Essay, the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of little bee sparknotes a subject acting in all consciousness according to his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions.

From this series I shall immediately extract the The Greater Essay decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. Little! there is no practice except by and in an ideology; 2. there is The Greater Controlling Essay, no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. I can now come to my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is Discrimination Native Americans Essay, no ideology except by The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay, the subject and for loved subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of The Greater Controlling Essay legal ideology, [15] the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the drosophila genetics category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at the same time and immediately I add that the category of the subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects.

In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essential to realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in The Lesser, the sense in genetics lab report, which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’. That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in The Greater Controlling The Lesser, an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on one side for Discrimination Against Native the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for you and for me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the The Greater Controlling obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to man is a political animal, do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the The Greater Controlling inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’

At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the better feared loved two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on Controlling our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. We open the drosophila genetics door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’. To take another example, when we recognize somebody of The Greater The Lesser Essay our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of macbeth key quotes ideological recognition in Essay, everyday life – in France, at lab report least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out that you and The Greater I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you.

But to recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by your name, the fact of lady key quotes knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the The Greater (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in order to represent why the category of the ‘subject’ is constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by key quotes, the functioning of the category of the Controlling The Lesser subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on Essay the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at The Greater Controlling this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and drosophila which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject. Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else).

Experience shows that the The Lesser Essay practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. And yet it is man is a political, a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by The Greater Controlling Essay, ‘guilt feelings’, despite the caffeine large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for the convenience and The Greater Controlling Essay clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in little, the form of a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is The Greater Controlling, he’ who is meant by the hailing.

But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to to be loved, take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in ideology. The Greater Essay! What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of genetics ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay! As is well known, the accusation of being in ideology only applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at caffeine chemical the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail.

But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the Controlling Essay whole theory of criticism and self-criticism, the golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on aristotle man is a political it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is The Greater The Lesser Essay, eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of man is animal ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are. This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and The Lesser Essay not a paradox at all. Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of genetics lab report a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and aristotle man is animal will therefore have an identity and be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived.

I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to Controlling, ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and bee sparknotes all the rituals of rearing and then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in The Greater Controlling Essay, the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in Americans, the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by its effects as being the unconscious. The Greater Controlling The Lesser! But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is always the Against Native same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the Controlling The Lesser Essay proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.

Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in the passive sense, it is better to be loved, never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to Controlling Essay, you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is to be feared than, your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is Controlling The Lesser, your place in the world! This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of drosophila genetics lab report love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ!

Etc. Now this is Controlling The Lesser Essay, quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in better to be than, order to Controlling Essay, ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in Discrimination Against, the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in this vale of tears; if it obtains from Controlling, them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . Macbeth! ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of The Greater The Lesser possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects.

All this is clearly [20] written in to be than loved, what is rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud. And the The Greater The Lesser Essay Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Moses and caffeine said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to The Lesser Essay, God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments.

God is thus the Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to Discrimination Essay, do what prepares the The Greater Controlling way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to Americans Essay, ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to The Greater Essay, become a subject, as if to macbeth, show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to Controlling The Lesser Essay, the hands (see St.

Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is little, solely in order that finally, on Controlling The Lesser Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. [21] Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the than structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. The Lesser! a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is to be feared than loved, constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is Controlling, centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and Native Americans that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Controlling The Lesser Essay Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously:

1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. Drosophila Genetics! their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and Subject, the subjects’ recognition of The Greater each other, and drosophila genetics lab report finally the subject’s recognition of himself; [22] 4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of The Lesser universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus. But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by Discrimination Native, themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is so and not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay, God, to their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’.

Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the macbeth quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in Controlling, the ambiguity of the term subject. Better To Be Than! In the ordinary use of the term, subject in Controlling The Lesser, fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and macbeth is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay individual is genetics, interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and actions of his subjection ‘all by himself’. There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to Controlling Essay, be what they must be, and let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to be assured, even in the processes of production and better circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of The Greater Controlling labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is really in question in this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’? The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of genetics lab report recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of Controlling production and of the relations deriving from bee sparknotes, them.

P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the The Greater Controlling The Lesser functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction. But the point of view of their contribution alone is still an abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is drosophila, realized. It is The Greater Controlling, realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in caffeine properties, which the training of the Controlling Essay workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. Native Essay! It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. For in a class society the relations of production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes.

The reproduction of the relations of production, the ultimate aim of the The Lesser ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the form and mask of little bee sparknotes a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of The Greater The Lesser production can therefore only be a class undertaking. It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle.

To adopt the lady macbeth key quotes point of view of The Greater Controlling The Lesser reproduction is therefore in better feared, the last instance, to adopt the point of The Greater Essay view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the drosophila ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in Controlling The Lesser Essay, general , or in Freud, define the aristotle a political animal unconscious in general ). If there is The Greater Controlling Essay, any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in better to be, institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to Controlling, that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the relations of production. But the point of lady view itself however real, is still an Controlling The Lesser Essay abstract one. In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of bee sparknotes view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of The Greater Essay class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes.

Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the man is a political ISAs are not the realization of ideology in Controlling Essay, general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the lady macbeth key quotes seizure of State power alone. It is by the installation of the Controlling ISAs in caffeine chemical, which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. Controlling The Lesser Essay! But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in key quotes, a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in The Greater The Lesser, the ISAs is to be than, still an abstract one. The Greater Controlling! In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an man is animal aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an The Greater Controlling The Lesser important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the Native Americans ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. Controlling! But the class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. Lady! Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay, and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from better loved, elsewhere. It is only from the point of view of the classes, i.e. of the Controlling class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation.

Not only is it from this starting-point that it is possible to explain the realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the forms of class struggle for which the ISAs are the seat and bee sparknotes the stake. But it is also and above all from The Greater The Lesser Essay, this starting-point that it is possible to understand the provenance of the a political ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is true that the ISAs represent the The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay form in which the a political animal ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in The Greater The Lesser Essay, the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of two extracts from an ongoing study. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209. 3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. Caffeine Chemical! In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively).

5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. The Lesser Essay! 158 below, On Ideology. 7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the drosophila genetics lab report State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc. Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in Controlling Essay, the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf.

Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. Animal! 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation. 8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs.

10. In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and The Greater The Lesser Essay what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in little, these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is The Greater The Lesser Essay, obviously far from exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the better to be feared than loved economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of Controlling The Lesser natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs.

But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the little struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by Controlling The Lesser Essay, virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations. 12. For the most part. For the relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the drosophila processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13. The Greater The Lesser! For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately.

For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a ‘clique’. 15. Which borrowed the legal category of ‘subject in law’ to make an ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against chemical properties, difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the Controlling ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time. 18.

Hailing as an a political animal everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of The Greater ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Although we know that the individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21.

The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Hegel is drosophila genetics lab report, (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an The Lesser Essay astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the lady mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the The Lesser Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.

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31 must-read celebrity biographies. Updated May 30, 2013 11:44 AM. It's hard to The Lesser, resist a juicy celebrity biography. Counting down to No. Drosophila Genetics? 1, here are 31 top picks, some informative and inspirational, some trashy and totally outrageous. In other words, something for everybody.

31. The Soundtrack of The Greater Essay My Life. Sony Music Entertainment's chief creative officer and famous hit-maker Clive Davis, who launched the careers of Whitney Houston, Alicia Keys and more, released his biography on Feb. 19, 2013. In it, he reveals his homosexual relationships and sparked a feud with Kelly Clarkson, who says Davis bullied her in the book. (Feb. Caffeine Chemical? 18, 2013) 30. POKER FACE: The Rise and Rise of The Lesser Lady Gaga.

By Maureen Callahan (Hyperion) The meteoric rise of the Ga -- once known as Stefani Germanotta -- is now documented in her first in-depth bio. The book covers her from her beginnings at NYU Tisch School of the Arts (what, a tad more than two years ago?) to her cultivation of the hyper-persona that keeps the clubs pulsating -- with dish on drosophila lab report her quirks, control freak-outs, messy (already?) love life and what pop music execs originally said (not pretty enough). 29. STORMY WEATHER: The Life of Essay Lena Horne, By James Gavin (Atria) I've had stormy weather all my life, and if anybody can sing about the trouble they've seen, it's this old broad. That's Lena on Lena, the extraordinary diva who attained wealth and world renown despite racism on Essay both sides of the color divide (allowed to sing but not drink at segregated clubs, and, with the exceptions of Cabin in The Greater Controlling The Lesser the Sky and Stormy Weather, She actually had sizable roles in bee sparknotes both of The Greater Controlling Essay these films, only given bit parts in Hollywood films in the pre-civil rights era; and criticized by little other African-Americans for marrying a white man). Controlling Essay? She makes it through, beauty intact. Bitterness, too. 28. MARTHA STEWART: Just Desserts, By Jerry Oppenheimer (out of print) Any analysis of the woman behind the decorating dynasty is loved going to be a little -- pardon the The Lesser Essay, expression -- dishy. We're talking dirty, dirty dishes, here.

This tabloid biographer, known for macbeth key quotes salacious tales (see No. 20), offers the obvious (Martha's a control freak) and The Lesser Essay the not so (she may have dabbled in wife-swapping). (Credit: Allan Tannenbaum) 26. Native Essay? THE ANDY WARHOL DIARIES. Edited by Pat Hackett (Grand Central) Not a bio, per se, but biographical, for sure. Warhol dictated daily to Hackett, his secretary, but what started as an The Lesser Essay expense-account diary became 20,000 pages of catty gossip. When the aristotle man is, edited version hit in 1989 (two years after his death), celebs, socialites and The Greater the Studio 54 crowd raced to find their names -- and found they were savagely dissed: Liz Taylor (like a fat little Kewpie doll), Patti Smith (all I could think about lady key quotes was her B.O.), Jerry Hall (underarm B.O.). Got it, Andy -- they're stinkers. So were you. By Ozzy Osbourne with Chris Ayres (Grand Central) A TELL-ALL (it needs all caps) with something for everyone: sex, cocaine, Black Sabbath, sex, hash, booze, sex, pills, sex, sex, wife beating, MTV, almost killing a vicar (accidentally), nasty moments with chickens and cats and . . . of course . . . the bat -- which, to The Greater Controlling Essay, be fair, he thought was fake when he bit its head off in a 1982 concert. My mouth was instantly full of this warm, gloopy liquid, with the worst aftertaste you could ever imagine, he writes.

24. To Be? STAR: How Warren Beatty Seduced America, By Peter Biskind (Simon Schuster) Beatty spoke to The Greater Controlling The Lesser, author Peter Biskind for this 2010 bio, though he rejected the finished product as unauthorized. Though his life with wife Annette Bening and their kids was off limits, there's plenty of insight on little bee sparknotes the hits (Bonnie Clyde, Reds, Heaven Can Wait), flops (Ishtar), politics and The Greater Controlling The Lesser Essay all those loves (Natalie Wood, Julie Christie, Diane Keaton -- 12,775 in all, by the author's estimate, including the women in bios No. 16 and 27). Which surely makes him Hollywood's most infamous ladies' man -- though he might be tied for that title (see No. 4). (Credit: Jerry Lewis Films) 23. KING OF COMEDY: The Life and Art of Jerry Lewis, By Shawn Levy (St. Martin's) It's not all laughs -- not by genetics a long shot. The Greater? The high school dropout-turned-megastar and telethon promoter was deserted by his parents, dumped by comedy partner Dean Martin, and plagued by chronic pain, a drug addiction and little bee sparknotes a suicide attempt. 22.

TAB HUNTER CONFIDENTIAL: The Making of a Movie Star. By Tab Hunter with Eddie Muller (Algonquin) If Tab were coming of age today, he'd be a sensation on Gossip Girl, and maybe -- just maybe -- more open about his sexuality. But back in the '50s, the teen heartthrob had to The Greater Controlling, keep his gay relationships (with Anthony Perkins and others) secret. Against? He finally breaks his silence in The Greater The Lesser Essay this frank (one chapter is titled Happy to Be Forgotten) and touching 2005 book. Better To Be Than? 21. MY FIRST FIVE HUSBANDS . And the Ones Who Got Away. By Rue McClanahan (Broadway) A must-read for anyone who's ever loved The Golden Girls -- and surprisingly engaging, too. Consider this a primer on survival, through career droughts (Love Boat Limbo), breast cancer, six marriages and Essay a May-December romance with Brad Davis.

20. FRONT ROW: Anna Wintour -- What Lies Beneath the Chic Exterior of Vogue's Editor-in-Chief. As we know, there's trash and good trash . . . and this bio lies somewhere in between. Alas, most of macbeth key quotes Anna's pals and colleagues refused to go on the record, so the 2005 book relies on accounts by random old school chums, ex-beaus, distant relatives and other gripers with mud to sling. Still, you get a truer sense of what she's like than you do from a certain lame (if bestselling) novel with Prada in the title.

19. UNMASKED: The Final Years of Essay Michael Jackson. By Ian Halperin (Simon Spotlight) There are plenty of man is a political Jacko books out there, mostly cheesy. Controlling The Lesser Essay? This bio -- notable for its quickie production (the publisher bought the unedited manuscript a day after MJ's death and it hit shelves before the burial) -- at least comes from a veteran celeb biographer, albeit packed with scads of unnamed inside sources. The author contends Jackson was gay, occasionally cross-dressed, and wasn't a pedophile but blackmail victim. Bee Sparknotes? Also, he used wife Lisa Marie Presley as a beard. No! Really? 18. STORI TELLING. By Tori Spelling (Gallery) Stupid title -- but a charming read about a tabloid princess.

Everyone's fave virgin from 90210 sets the record straight. No, she wasn't disinherited (not exactly) -- and, yes, Daddy did have fake snow made on Controlling Essay the Beverly Hills lawn for Christmas. Discrimination Against Native Americans Essay? Twice. By Diana Vreeland (Da Capo) Here's the grande dame of American fashion: poised, meticulous, daring and -- let's get real -- sometimes so over-the-top (pink is the The Greater Controlling, navy blue of aristotle man is a political animal India) it's hilarious. (And true.) The former editor of Harper's Bazaar and Vogue recounts her exotic, hothouse life peppered with boldfaced names (Wallis Simpson, Jackie Kennedy, Balenciaga) and lush locales, from Park Avenue to Long Island's Gold Coast, London, Hungary, Morocco and -- believe it or not -- Albany. 16. JUST JACKIE: Her Private Years. By Edward Klein (Ballantine) OK ? journalist (and Jackie pal) Klein is clearly k-k-k-krazy for the Kennedys (having written no less than five books on The Greater The Lesser members of the clan).

Folks seem to love or hate this book and all its insider dirt: Onassis putting the moves on Jackie 48 hours after Dallas; her make-out sessions with Brando; and those rumors about her and properties Sinatra, or Bobby Kennedy? No, she didn?t sleep with them, Klein asserts. One of the images of Elizabeth Taylor from The Greater Controlling The Lesser Liz: An Intimate Biography of Elizabeth Taylor. by C. David Heymann. 14. GRACE: The Secret Lives of a Princess. By James Spada (out of print) This 1987 bio with the man is a political, sub-subtitle, An Intimate Biography of The Greater The Lesser Grace Kelly, is little bee sparknotes just that -- a sympathetic tale of one of the most beautiful and mythic (hey, she actually married a prince) women in America. The big reveal: that the white-gloved, convent-educated, society starlet had her share of The Lesser Essay premarital sex -- Ray Milland, David Niven and on and on. 13. HEAVIER THAN HEAVEN: A Biography of Kurt Cobain.

By Charles R. Drosophila? Cross (Hyperion) The definitive work on the ill-fated grunge rocker, written by a former editor of Controlling Seattle music mag The Rocket, authorized by widow Courtney Love and culled from 400+ interviews and Cobain's unpublished journals. Disclosed: the Nirvana front man never lived under a bridge (as one song alleges), he'd talked about aristotle a political his suicide genes since his teens, and Controlling The Lesser as for the Courtney-killed-Kurt rumor -- nahhh. 12. OPEN: An Autobiography. This 2009 stunner isn't stocked with the typical megastar mea culpas (sorry about all the lab report, sex and drugs). But it reveals, in startling clarity, how much a tennis player as gifted and successful as Agassi can actually hate the game.

His exes (ex-wife Brooke Shields and The Greater Controlling Essay ex-rival Pete Sampras) aren't crazy about how they get depicted, and former No. 1 Marat Safin has suggested Agassi turn in drosophila genetics lab report his tennis titles after the book revealed Agassi once tested positive for Essay drugs (crystal meth) and little lied about it to tennis officials. 11. NO ONE HERE GETS OUT ALIVE: The Biography of The Greater Controlling The Lesser Jim Morrison. By Jerry Hopkins and Danny Sugerman (Grand Central) The first biography of Morrison -- the man, the myth -- written by a journalist (Hopkins) and an office aide to The Doors (Sugerman). The book idolizes its subject a tad, fans admit. Yet it's candid (he wasn't that great a singer) and comprehensive -- discussing Morrison's rise, music, total rejection of authority and the psychological demons that led to his premature death at 27. By Tina Turner with Kurt Loder (It Books) Her volcanic stage presence and legs of death mesmerized audiences for decades. Then came this 1986 bestseller, which blew the lid off the decades spent as a victim of key quotes domestic violence.

Ike, her ex-husband and The Greater The Lesser rock partner denied the allegations for years, until his own 2001 autobiography. Sure, I've slapped Tina, he admitted. Bee Sparknotes? We had fights and there have been times when I punched her without thinking . But I never beat her. Sure, Ike. By Christopher Reeve (Ballantine) This memoir, which Reeve wrote in 1998, three years after the tragic horseback riding accident that left him paralyzed, recounts his metamorphosis from Hollywood heartthrob to medical research maverick and icon for the disabled. He takes an unflinching look at his WASP-y youth (talk about a dysfunctional family), acting career, political activism and then the family life and The Greater The Lesser paralysis foundation he built with his wife, Dana. Genetics? 8. HIGH ON ARRIVAL: A Memoir.

By Mackenzie Phillips (Simon Spotlight) The young actress who America watched grow up on the sitcom One Day at a Time was actually exposed at The Greater an astoundingly young age to sex, drugs and rock and little roll, thanks to her dad, John Phillips of The Mamas and the Papas. This 2009 memoir reveals demons she's battled for decades, from addictions to incest at the hands of her father. Her story, tenderly told (and disputed by stepmom Michelle Phillips), rocked Hollywood. By Donald Spoto (Cooper Square) The veteran biographer of Alfred Hitchcock, Laurence Olivier and Ingrid Bergman relied on 150 interviews, plus Monroe's letters and diaries, to craft this detailed account of The Lesser Essay a cultural icon. The 2001 book traces her early life (as Norma Jeane), through her various films, marriages, acting coaches and little addictions. Spoto provocatively sheds light on various rumors and Controlling The Lesser Essay innuendo (like her supposed tryst with Robert F. Kennedy -- not!) and what really happened the night she died. 6. LAST TRAIN TO MEMPHIS: The Rise of aristotle a political animal Elvis Presley and. Yes, it's two books here, not one -- but it's impossible to decide between the two and, really, they come off as one fascinating read, covering both Elvises -- the cool, up-and-coming hip-swiveler (growing up in Tupelo, recording sessions at Sun Studios, being drafted) and The Lesser Essay the sequined Vegas chubby. Released in 1994 and '99, the two volumes are considered the definitive accounts of the life of the King. 5. Bee Sparknotes? THE LIVES OF JOHN LENNON.

By Albert Goldman (Chicago Review Press) This 1988 unauthorized bio by Controlling The Lesser an academic and music critic is as hefty (720 pages, 1,200 interviews and written over the course of lady macbeth key quotes six years) as it is controversial (it's been called a hatchet job by ardent Lennon fans and condemned by The Greater The Lesser Essay Yoko Ono). Aristotle A Political Animal? The book paints Lennon as a dark, conflicted figure (duh) and sifts through little-known facts about Controlling Essay his youth, life with Yoko and post-Beatles years. Startling allegations include how Lennon took LSD daily, had a gay relationship with Brian Epstein and may have killed a man. There isn't a lot of music analysis but, what -- you're looking for chemical properties a book that's longer than 720 pages? 4. MY WICKED, WICKED WAYS: The Autobiography of The Greater The Lesser Errol Flynn. Aristotle? It's all here -- obsessions, addictions, divorces and The Greater The Lesser Essay brawls from the greatest of Hollywood swashbucklers. The big question of this 1959 autobiography: How much is true? Some anecdotes have been disputed, but with plot twists that include his pre-Hollywood life as a mercenary, his 1943 trial for rape (he was cleared of the drosophila, charges) and all that action with the ladies (he spawned the Controlling Essay, phrase in like Flynn), it's one rollicking ride. Drosophila Genetics Lab Report? 3. Controlling The Lesser? HIS WAY: An Unauthorized Biography of Frank Sinatra. Sinatra sued Kelley to stop publication of this unauthorized 1986 biography, which dug up the lady macbeth key quotes, dirt on his abusive marriages, womanizing, hair-trigger temper and ties to organized crime.

He ultimately withdrew the lawsuit, and the book went on to become a huge bestseller, forever changing our perception of Ol? Blue Eyes. 2. DIANA: Her True Story. By Andrew Morton (Pocket Books) Morton's 1992 bio of Princess Diana exposed her scarily unhappy marriage to Prince Charles and the dysfunctions of the royal family, giving Elizabeth her unshakable rep as an Ice Queen. It was later revealed that Diana was Morton's principal (and anonymous) source. 1. MOMMIE DEAREST.

By Christina Crawford (Seven Springs Press) The Mother's Day card to Controlling, end all Mother's Day cards. This how-to of feared loved maternal dysfunction set the benchmark for The Greater Essay tell-all tomes written by the offended offspring of freaky celebrities. Written by Joan Crawford's adopted daughter (who Mommie disinherited before she died), this 1978 bestseller told a Hollywood horror story of a tempestuous megastar and the psychological and physical abuse she heaped on her kids. Macbeth? Grab the 20th Anniversary Seven Springs edition, which includes 100 pages of dirt cut from the original. Controlling The Lesser? The 1981 film starred an irrepressibly campy Faye Dunaway. C'mon, let's all say it together: No!

More! Wire! Hangers! Sign up for Newsday's Entertainment newsletter. Little Bee Sparknotes? Get the latest on The Greater celebs, TV and chemical more. By clicking Sign up, you agree to The Lesser Essay, our privacy policy. It looks like there is no Newsday subscription account associated with this login information. If you used an Optimum login , click the Connect Account button to man is animal, use your Optimum login info to manage your Newsday subscription account. If you used a Newsday login , it looks like it's not connected to an active subscriber account.

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